Abramowitz, A. & McCoy, J. (2019). United States: Racial Resentment, Negative Partisanship, and Polarization in Trump’s America. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 681(1), 137–156.
Allen, T.W. (1997) The Invention of the White Race, Volume II: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo America. Verso.
Allport, Gordon W. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Alsan, Marcella; Garrick, Owen; and Graziani, Grant (2019). Does Diversity Matter for Health? Experimental Evidence from Oakland. American Economic Review, 109 (12), pages 4071–4111.
American Anthropological Association Statement on “Race.” (May 17, 1998). http://www.aaanet.org/stmts/racepp.htm
Anglin, Deidre M. et al. (2021). From Womb to Neighborhood: A Racial Analysis of Social Determinants of Psychosis in the United States. American Journal of Psychiatry, 178 (7), pages 599 – 610.
Apfelbaum, Evan P., Norton, Michael I., and Sommers, Samuel R. (2012). Racial Color Blindness: Emergence, Practice, and Implications. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21 (3), pages 205 – 2009.
Apfelbaum, Evan P., Pauker, Kristin, Sommers, Samuel R., and Ambady, Nalini (2012). A Colorblind Mindset Reduces White Children’s Ability to See Racism. Psychological Science, 21 (11), pages 1587 – 1592.
Baker, Al (May 27, 2010). Bias Seen in ‘Police-on-Police Shootings. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/27/nyregion/27shoot.html?module=Search&mabReward=relbias%3As&_r=0 Retrieved July 2, 2014.
Baldoz, R. (2017). The Strange Career of the Filipino “National”: Empire, Citizenship, and Racial Statecraft. In C I. Cheng (Ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Asian American Studies. Routledge.
Bañales, Josefina; Banks, Kira Hudson; and Burke, Meghan A. (2021). The impact of a diversity intervention on White college students’ colour-blind racial attitudes. Whiteness and Education, DOI: 10.1080/23793406.2020.1867480.
Bar-Haim, Yair et al. (2006). Nature and nurture in own-race face processing. Psychological Science, 17 (2), pp. 159 – 163.
Barndt, Joseph (2007). Understanding and Dismantling Racism: The Twenty-First Century Challenge to White America. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
Baron de Montesquieu, de Secondat, Charles. The Spirit of Laws. Kitchener, Ontario, CAN: Batoche Books, 2001. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 6 July 2015.
Copyright © 2001. Batoche Books. All rights reserved.
Barr, Donald A. (2019). Health Disparities in the United States: Social Class, Race, Ethnicity, and the Social Determinants of Health, 3rd edition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Bean, M.G., et al. (2012). Prejudice Concerns and Race-Based Attentional Bias: New Evidence from Eyetracking. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(6) 722 – 729.
Bennett, Jr. , L. (1975). The Shaping of Black America. Johnson Publishing Company, Inc.
Bentele, Keith G. and O’Brien, Erin E. (2013). Jim Crow 2.0? Why States Consider and Adopt Restrictive Voter Access Policies. Perspectives on Politics, 11 (4), pages 1088 – 1116.
Bergsieker, H.B., Shelton, J.N., Richeson, J.A., and Simpson, J. (2010). To Be Liked Versus Respected: Divergent Goals in Interracial Interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99 (2), 248 – 264.
Berlin, A. (1998). Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Bertrand, Marianne and Mullainathan, Sendhi (2004). Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination. The American Economic Review, 94 (4), pages 991 – 1013.
Betancourt, Joseph R., Green, Alexander R., Carrillo, J. Emilio, and Ananeh-Firempong II, Owusu (2003). Defining Cultural Competence: A Practical Framework for Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care. Public Health Reports, 118, pages 293 – 302.
Bettelmann, D. and Böhm, R. (2014). The Ontogeny of the Motivation That Underlies In-Group Bias. Psychological Science, 25 (4), 921 – 927.
Biernat, Monica (2003). Toward a Broader View of Social Stereotyping. American Psychologist, 58 (12), pages 1019 – 1027.
Biernat, Monica, and Ma, Jennifer E. (2005). Stereotypes and the confirmability of trait concepts. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31 (4), pages 483 – 495.
Binder, Amy (1993). Constructing Racial Rhetoric: Media Depictions of Harm in Heavy Metal and Rap Music. American Sociological Review, 58 (6), pages 753 – 767.
Blackmon, D.A. (2008). Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black People in America from the Civil War to World War II. Doubleday.
Bobo, Lawrence D. et al. (2012). The Real Record on Racial Attitudes. In Marsden, Peter V. (Ed.), Social Trends in American Life: Findings from the General Social Survey Since 1972. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo (2003). Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Inequality in the United States. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
Boyle, G. (2017). Barking to the Choir: The Power of Radical Kinship. Simon & Schuster.
Bracey, Glenn E. II and Moore, Wendy Leo (2017). “Race Tests”: Racial Boundary Maintenance in White Evangelical Churches. Sociological Inquiry, 87 (2), pages 282 – 302.
Brannon, Tiffany N., Markus, Hazel Rose, and Jones Taylor, Valerie (2015). “Two Souls, Two Thoughts,” Two Self-Schemas: Double Consciousness Can Have Positive Academic Consequences for African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108 (4), pages 586–609.
Brewer, M. B. (1979). In-group bias in the minimal intergroup situation: A cognitive- motivational analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 86 (2), 307 – 324.
Brodkin, Karen (1998). How Jews Became White Folks & What that Says about Race in America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Brueggemann, W. (2021). Journey to the Common Good, updated edition. Westminster John Knox Press.
Bruins, Elton J. and Schakel, Karen G. (2011). Envisioning Hope College: Letters Written by Albertus C. Van Raalte to Philip Phelps, Jr., 1857 – 1875. Grand Rapids, Mich.: W. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
Buechner, F. (1999). Faith and Fiction. In William Zinsser (Ed.), Going on Faith: Writing as a Spiritual Quest. Wipf & Stock.
Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee (2006). Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2005. U.S. Census Bureau, http://www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs/p60-231.pdf
Casale, G. (2006). The Ottoman Administration of the Spice Trade in the Sixteenth-Century Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 49 (2), 170 – 198.
Castelli, Luigi, Zogmaister, Cristina, and Tomelleri, Sylvia (2009). The transmission of racial attitudes within the family. Developmental Psychology, 45 (2), pages 586 – 591.
Chang, Edward H. et al. (2019). The mixed effects of online diversity training. PNAS, 116, (16), pages 7778-7783.
Charles, M. and Rah, S. (2019). Unsettling Truths: The Ongoing, Dehumanizing Legacy of the Doctrine of Discovery. InterVarsity Press.
Cheryan, Sapna and Monin, Benoȋt (2005). “Where are you really from?”: Asian Americans and Identity Denial. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89 (5), pages 717 – 730.
Chetty, Raj et al. (2014). Is the United States Still a Land of Opportunity? Recent Trends in Intergenerational Mobility. American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings, 104 (5), pages 141 – 147.
Childs, C. (2018). Atlas of a Lost World: Travels in Ice Age America. Pantheon Books.
Cikara, Mina and Van Bavel Jay J. (2014). The Neuroscience of Intergroup Relations. An Integrative Review. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9 (3), pages 245 – 274.
Clark, Rodney; Anderson, Norman B.; Clark, Vanessa R.; and Williams, David R. (1999). Racism as a stressor for African Americans: A biosocial model. American Psychologist, 54 (10), pages 805 – 816.
Copyright 1999 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 00O3-066X/99/S2.O0
Vol. 54. No. 10, 805-816
Clarke, Christina et al. (2010) Racial and social class gradients in life expectancy in contemporary California. Social Science & Medicine, 70, pages 1373 – 1380
Coates, Ta-Nehisi (2015). Between the World and Me. New York: Spiegel and Grau.
Cohen, Claudia E. (1981). Person Categories and Social Perception: Testing Some Boundaries of the Processing Effects of Prior Knowledge. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40 (3), pages 441 – 452.
Conley, Dalton (2003). Being Black, Living in the Red: Race, Wealth, and Social Policy in America. In Dalton Conley (Ed.), Wealth and Poverty in America: A Reader. Padstow, Cornwall, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
Cone, James (1969/2019). Black Theology and Black Power (Anniversary Edition). Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books.
Cose, E. (1993). A Dozen Demons. In The Rage of a Privileged Class. New York: HarperCollins.
Cox, Oliver Cromwell (1948). Caste, Class, and Race. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Craig, M.A. and Richeson, J.A. (2014). On the Precipice of a “Majority-Minority” America: Perceived Status Threat From the Racial Demographic Shift Affects White Americans’ Political Ideology. Psychological Science, 25 (6), pages 1189 – 1197.
Craig, M.A., Rucker, J. M., & Richeson, J. A. (2018). Racial and Political Dynamics of an Approaching “Majority-Minority” United States. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 677(1), 204–214.
Cross, W. E., Jr. (1971). The Negro-to-Black conversion experience. Black World, 20 (9), 13–27.
Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., and Glick, P. (2007). The BIAS Map: Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92 (4), pages 631 – 648.
Curtice, K.B. (2020). Native: Identity, Belonging, and Rediscovering God. Brazos Press.
Cykert, Samuel et al. (October, 2020). A Multi-faceted Intervention Aimed at Black-White Disparities in the Treatment of Early Stage Cancers: The ACCURE Pragmatic Quality Improvement Trial. Journal of the National Medical Association, 112 (5), pages 468 – 477.
Damico, S., Green, C.W., and Bell-Nathaniel, A. (1982). The impact of organizational structure on interracial contact. The Journal of Educational Equity and Leadership, 2, pages 238 – 252.
Damico, S., Bell-Nathaniel, A., and Green, C.W. (1981). Effects of school organizational structure on interracial friendships in middle schools. Journal of Educational Research, 74, pages 38 – 393.
Darling-Hammond, Sean et al. (2020). After “The China Virus Went Viral: Racially Charged Coronavirus Coverage and Trends in Bias Against Asian Americans. Health Education and Behavior, 47 (6), pages 870 – 879.
Davis, N.E. (2019). The Chinese Lady, Oxford University Press.
Delgado, Richard (October 11, 2005). Is Race a Social Construct? What about Your Teenager? Blackprof.com. Retrieved November 22, 2005.
Derenoncourt, E. (2022). Can You Move to Opportunity? Evidence from the Great Migration. American Economic Review, 112(2), 369–408.
Devine, Patricia G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56 (1), pp. 5 – 18.
Devine, Patricia G., Forscher, Patrick S., Austin, Anthony J., and Cox, William T.L. (2012). Long-term Reduction in Implicit Race Bias: A Prejudice Habit-Breaking Intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, pages 1267 – 1278.
Devos, Thierry and Ma, Debbie S. (2008). Is Kate Winslet more American than Lucy Liu? The impact of construal processes on the implicit ascription of a national identity. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47 (2), pages 191 – 215.
Dhanani, Lindsay Y. and Franz, Berkeley (2021). Why public health framing matters: An experimental study of the effects of COVID-19 framing on prejudice and xenophobia in the United States. Social Science and Medicine, 269, 113572.
Dillion, S. (2009, January 22). Study Sees an Obama Effect as Lifting Black Test-Takers. The New York Times. Retrieved October 23, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/23/education/23gap.html
Dhingra, P. and Rodriguez, R.M. (2021). Asian America (2nd Ed.). Polity Press.Dovidio, J. F. and Gaertner, S. L. (1998)
Dovidio, J. F. and Gaertner, S. L. (1991). Changes in the nature and expression of racial prejudice. In H. Knopke, J. Norrell, and R. Rogers (Eds..), Opening Doors: An Appraisal of Race Relations in Contemporary America (201 – 241). University of Alabama Press.
Dovidio, J. F. and Gaertner, S. L. (1998). On the Nature of Contemporary Prejudice.” In J.L. Eberhardt and S.T. Fiske (Eds.), Confronting racism: The problem and the response (pp. 3 – 32). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dovidio, J.F., Kawakami, K., and Gaertner, S.L. (2002). Implicit and Explicit Prejudice and Interracial Interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82 (1), 62 – 68.
Downs, J. (2012). Emancipation, Sickness, and Death in the American Civil War. The Lancet, 380, 1640 – 1641.
Dunbar-Ortiz, R. (2014). An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States. Beacon Press.
Duncan, Birt L. (1976). Differential Social Perception and Attribution of Intergroup Violence: Testing the Lower Limits of Stereotyping Blacks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34 (4), pages 590 – 598.
D’Vera Cohn (May 5, 2014). Millions of Americans Changed their Racial or Ethnic Identity from One Census to the Next. Pew Research Center. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/05/05/millions-of-americans-changed-their-racial-or-ethnic-identity-from-one-census-to-the-next/
Dyrbye, Liselotte et al. (2019). Association of Racial Bias With Burnout Among Resident Physicians. JAMA Network Open, 2 (7), pages 1 – 15.
Eagly, Alice H. and Steffen, Valerie J. (1984). Gender stereotypes stem from the distribution of women and men into social roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46 (4), pp. 735-754.
Eberhardt, Jennifer L. et al. (2006). Looking deathworthy: Perceived stereotypicality of black defendants predicts capital-sentencing outcomes. Psychological Science, 17 (5), pages 383 – 386.
Eibach, Richard P. and Ehrlinger, Joyce (2006). “Keep your eyes on the prize”: Reference points and racial differences in assessing progress toward equality. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32 (1), pp. 66 – 77.
Emerson, M., & Smith, C. (2000). Divided by faith: Evangelical religion and the problem of race in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Emerson, M. (Director) (2014, October 16). Question-and-Answer with Professor Michael Emerson. Lecture conducted from Hope College, Holland.
Erlandson, J.M., Braje, T.J., Gill, K.M., and Graham, M.H. (2015). Ecology of the Kelp Highway: Did Marine Resources Facilitate Human Dispersal from Northeast Asia to the Americas? Journal of Island & Coastal Archaeology, 10, 392–411.
Ernst, H.M., Kuhlmann, B.G., and Vogel, T. (2019). The Origin of Illusory Correlation, Experimental Psychology, 66(3), 195–206
Eugene M. Caruso, Nicole L. Mead, and Emily Balcetis (2009). Political partisanship influences perception of biracial candidates’ skin tone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106 (48), pages 20168 – 20173.
Falicov, Celia J. (2001). The cultural meanings of money: The case of Latinos and Anglo-Americans. The American Behavioral Scientist, 45 (2), pages 313 – 328.
Farrell, J. et al. (2021). Effects of land dispossession and forced migration on Indigenous peoples in North America. Science, 374, 578.
Fish, Jefferson M. (Nov-Dec 1995). Mixed blood. (the myth of racial classifications). Psychology Today, 28, (8), page 55.
Fiske, Susan T. (2018). Stereotype Content: Warmth and Competence Endure. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27 (2), pages 67 – 73.
Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J., Glick, P., Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 878–902.
Fladmark, K.R. (1979) Routes: Alternate Migration Corridors for Early Man in North America. American Antiquity, 44, 55–69.
Franz, Berkeley; Milner, Adrienne N., and Brown, R. Khari (2021). Opposition to the Affordable Care Act has little to do with healthcare. Race and Social Problems, 13, pages 161 – 169.
Fredrickson, George (2002). Racism: A Short History. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Quotation from page 17.
Fox, H. (2001). Mixing it up: Reactions of students of color. In When race breaks out conversations about race and racism in college classrooms. New York: Peter Lang.
Gaertner, Samuel L. and Dovidio, John F. (1977). The Subtlety of White Racism, Arousal, and Helping Behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35 (10), pages 691 – 707.
Galinsky, Adam D. and Moskowitz, Gordon B. (2000) Perspective-Taking: Decreasing Stereotype Expression, Stereotype Accessibility, and In-Group Favoritism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78 (4), pages 708-724.
Gates, H.L. (2019). Stony the Road: Reconstruction, White Supremacy, and the Rise of Jim Crow. Penguin Press.
Geronimus, Arline T et al. (2006). “Weathering” and Age Patterns of Allostatic Load Scores Among Blacks and Whites in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 96 (5), pages 826 – 833.
Gibson, Campbell J. and Lennon, Emily (February, 1999). “Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-born Population of the United States: 1850-1990.” Population Division Working Paper No. 29, http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0029/twps0029.html
Gibson, Margaret and Ogbu, John (1991). Minority status and schooling: A comparative study of immigrant and involuntary minorities. New York: Garland.
Gish, S.D. (2004). Desmond Tutu: A Biography. Greenwood Press.
Good, C., Stroessner, S., & Webster, L. (n.d.). ReducingStereotypeThreat.org. Retrieved October 23, 2014, from http://reducingstereotypethreat.org
Graves, J. L., Jr. (2004). The Race Myth: Why We Pretend Race Exists in America. Dutton.
Greg Richter (July 24, 2013). Rep. Steve King: Numbers show more drug ‘mules’ than valedictorians. Newsmax. http://www.newsmax.com/Newsfront/steve-king-drugmules/2013/07/24/id/516905#ixzz2zpBN12gy Retrieved on April 24, 2014
Green, C. W., Adams, A., and Turner, C. (1988). Development and validation of the School Interracial Climate Scale. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16 (2), pages 241 – 259.
Green, C. W. (2014). When Being Nice Isn’t Enough. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved August 18, 2014, from http://chronicle.com/article/When-Being-Nice-Isnt-Enough/146727/
Greenaway, Katharine H. et al. (2015). From “We” to “Me”: Group Identification Enhances Perceived Personal Control With Consequences for Health and Well-Being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109 (1), pages 53 – 74.
Gregg, Aiden P., Seibt,Beate, and Banaji, Mahzarin R. (2006). Easier done than undone: Asymmetry in the malleability of implicit preferences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90 (1), pages 1 – 20.
Grenier, J. (2005). The First Way of War: American War Making on the Frontier, 1607 – 1814. Cambridge University Press.
Gurin, P. (2003). The Impact of Structural Diversity, Classroom Diversity, and Informal Interactional Diversity on Education: Social Science Research Evidence. From A Compelling Need for Diversity in Higher Education, documents submitted by the University of Michigan to the U.S. Supreme Court for its affirmative action cases in 2003.
Hacker, Andrew (1992). Two Nations: Black and White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Halberstam, D. (1998). The Children. Fawcett Books.
Hämäläinen, P. (2022) Indigenous Continent: The Epic Contest for North America. Liveright Publishing Corporation.
Harrell, Shelly P. (2000). A Multidimensional Conceptualization of Racism-Related Stress: Implications for the Well-Being of People of Color. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70 (1), pages 42 – 57.
Hartman, Saidiya (2007). Lose Your Mother: A Journey Along the Atlantic Slave Route. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
Hasnain-Wynia, Romana et al. (2010). Racial and Ethnic Disparities within and between Hospitals for Inpatient Quality of Care: An Examination of Patient-Level Hospital Quality Alliance Measures. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 21, pages 629–648.
Hattam, Victoria (2005). Ethnicity & and boundaries of race: Rereading Directive 15. Daedalus, 134, 1, pages 61 – 69.
Haynes, S.R. (2002). Noah’s Curse: The Biblical Justification of American Slavery. Oxford University Press.
Helms, J. E. (1995). An update of Helms’s White and People of Color Racial Identity models. In J. Ponterotto, L. A. Suzuki, & C. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of Multicultural Counseling (pp. 181–198). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Henderson, K., et al. (2021). Confederate monuments and the history of lynching in the American South: An empirical examination. PNAS, 118 (42).
Heschel, Abraham Joshua (2020). Essential Writings. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books.
Hobbs, Allyson (2014). A Chosen Exile: A History of Racial Passing in American Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hoffman, Kelly M. et al. (2016). Racial bias in pain assessment and treatment recommendations, and false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites. PNAS, 113 (16), pages 4296–4301.
Holoien, Deborah Son and Shelton, J. Nicole (2012). You Deplete Me: The Cognitive Cost of Colorblindness on Ethnic Minorities. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, pages 562 – 565.
Houts Picca, Lesley and Feagin, Joe R. (2007). Two-Faced Racism: Whites in Backstage and Frontstage. New York: Routledge.
Hudson, Nicholas (2004) ‘Hottentots’ and the evolution of European Racism. Journal of European Studies, 34 (4), pages 308–332.
Johnson, Megan K.; Rowatt, Wade C.; and LaBouff, Jordan (2010). Priming Christian Religious Concepts Increases Racial Prejudice. Social Psychology and Personality Science, 1 (2), pages 119 – 126.
Jones, Jacqueline (2013). A Dreadful Deceit: The Myth of Race from the Colonial Era to Obama’s America. New York: Basic Books.
Jones, J. M. (1997). Prejudice and racism. New York: McGraw-Hill. Taken from pg. 399.
Jones, Melinda (2002). Social psychology of prejudice. Upper Saddle River , NJ : Prentice Hall.
Jones, Robert P (2020). White Too Long: The Legacy of White Supremacy in American Christianity. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster.
Kalev, Alexandra, Dobbin, Frank, and Kelly, Erin (2006). Best Practices or Best Guesses? Assessing the Efficacy of Corporate Affirmative Action and Diversity Policies. American Sociological Review, 71, pages 589 – 617.
Kalla, J.L. and Broockman, D.E. (2020). Reducing Exclusionary Attitudes through Interpersonal Conversation: Evidence from Three Field Experiments. American Political Science Review, 114 (2), 410 – 425.
Kang, Sonia K.; DeCelles, Katherine A.; Tilcsik, András; and Jun, Sora (2016). Whitened Résumés: Race and Self-Presentation in the Labor Market. Administrative Science Quarterly, 61 (3), pages 469 – 502.
Katznelson, Ira (2006). When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Kendi, Ibram X. (2019). How to Be an Antiracist. New York: One World.
Kelsey, George D. (1965). Racism and the Christian Understanding of Man. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Kids’ Test Answers on Race Brings Mother to Tears. May 25, 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/05/18/doll.study.parents/index.html Retrieved on May 1, 2014.
Kim, Claire Jean (1999). The Racial Triangulation of Asian-Americans. Politics and Society, 27 (1), pages 105 – 138.
Knowles, Eric D., Lowery, Brian S., Hogan, Caitlin M., and Chow, Rosalind M. (2009). On the Malleability of Ideology: Motivated Construals of Color Blindness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96 (4), pages 857 – 869.
Knowles, E.D., Lowery, B. S., Shulman, E. P., & Schaumberg, R. L. (2013). Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study. PloS One, 8(6), e67110–e67110. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067110
Koch, A., Brierley, C., Maslin M.M., and Lewis, S.L. (2019). Earth System Impacts of the European Arrival and Great Dying in the Americas after 1492. Quaternary Science Reviews, 207, 13 – 36.
Kteily, Nour, Bruneau, Emile, Waytz, Adam, and Cotterill, Sarah (2015, June 29). The Ascent of Man: Theoretical and Empirical Evidence for Blatant Dehumanization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/279513347/
Krysan, Maria and Bader, Michael (2007). Perceiving the Metropolis: Seeing the City Through a Prism of Race. Social Forces, 86 (2), pages 699 – 733.
Krysan, Maria; Couper, Mick P.; Reynolds, Farley; and Forman, Tyrone A. (2009). Does Race Matter in Neighborhood Preferences? Results from a Video Experiment. American Journal of Sociology, 115 (2), pages 527 – 559.
Krysan, Maria and Lewis, Amanda (May-June 2005). Racial Discrimination is Alive and Well, Challenge, 48 (3), pp. 34 – 49. Profs. Krysan and Lewis are the editors of The Changing Terrain of Race and Ethnicity. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2004.
Kurashige, L. (2016). Two Faces of Exclusion: The Untold History of Anti-Asian Racism in the United States. The University of North Carolina Press.
Kuo, Entung Ena, Kraus, Michael W., and Richeson, Jennifer (2020). High-Status Exemplars and the Misperception of the Asian-White Wealth Gap. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 11 (3), pages 397 – 405.
Kwon, D.L. & Thompson, G. (2020). Reparations: A Christian Call for Repentance and Repair. Brazos Press.
Lamason, Rebecca L. et al. (December 16, 2005) SLC24A5, a Putative Cation Exchanger, Affects Pigmentation in Zebrafish and Humans. Science: 310 (5755), pp. 1782 – 1786.
Lee, Cynthia (2013). Making Race Salient: Trayvon Martin and Implicit Bias in a Not Yet Post-Racial Society. North Carolina Law Review, 91, pages 1555 – 1612.
Lee, E. (2015). The Making of Asian America: A History. Simon & Schuster.
Lee, Suyeon and Waters, Sara F. (2021). Asians and Asian Americans’ Experiences of Racial Discrimination During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Impacts on Health Outcomes and the Buffering Role of Social Support. Stigma and Health, 6 (1), pages 70 – 78.
Lewis, Jacqui (2021). Fierce Love: A Bold Path to Ferocious Courage and Rule-Breaking Kindness That Can Heal the World. Harmony Books.
Lewis, J. (1998). Walking with the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement. Simon & Schuster.
Li, Yao and Nicholson, Harvey L. (2021). When “model minorities” become “yellow peril”—Othering and the racialization of Asian Americans in the COVID‐19 pandemic. Sociology Compass, 2021-02, Vol.15 (2), p.e12849-n/a.
Limerick, P.N. (1984). The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West. W.W. Norton & Company.
Locke, Dexter H. (2021). Residential housing segregation and urban tree canopy in 37 US Cities. npr Urban Sustainability, pages 1 – 9.
Londoño Tobón et al., (2021). Racial implicit associations in psychiatric diagnosis, treatment, and compliance expectations. Academic Psychiatry, 45 (1), pages 23 – 33.
López, Ian Haney (2013). Dog Whistle Politics: How Coded Racial Appeals Have Reinvented Racism and Wrecked the Middle Class. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Maghbouleh, N., Schachter, A., and Flores, R. (2022). Middle Eastern and North African Americans may not be perceived, nor perceive themselves, to be White. PNAS, 119 (7). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2117940119.
Martin, C. (2014, August 15). To Be White and Reckon with the Death of Michael Brown. Retrieved January 16, 2015, from http://www.onbeing.org/blog/to-be-white-and-reckon-with-the-death-of-michael-brown/6710
Mallett, Robyn K., Wagner, Dana E., and Harrison, Patrick R. (2011). Understanding the Intergroup Forecasting Error. In Tropp, Linda R. and Mallett, Robyn K. (Eds.), Moving Beyond Prejudice Reduction: Pathways to Positive Intergroup Relations. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Mann, C.C. (2005). 1491: New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus. Alfred A. Knopf.
Marcelo, Ana K. and Yates, Tuppett M. (2019). Young Children’s Ethnic–Racial Identity Moderates the Impact of Early Discrimination Experiences on Child Behavior Problems. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 25 (2), pages 253 – 265
Markus, Hazel Rose, Steele, Claude M., and Steele, Dorothy M. (2000) Colorblindness as a Barrier to Inclusion: Assimilation and Nonimmigrant Minorities. Daedalus, 129 (4), pages 233 – 259.
Martin, W. (1991). A Prophet with Honor: The Billy Graham Story. W. Morrow and Co.
Massey, Douglas S. and Denton, Nancy A. (1998). American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Boston: Harvard University Press.
Massey, Douglas S. (March 22, 2003). The Race Case. The American Prospect, 14 (3).
Massey, Douglas S. (March, 2016). Residential Segregation is the Linchpin of Racial Stratification. City Community, 15(1), pages 4–7.
Matos, N. (2014, July 16). Don’t Dodge the Diversity Question! The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved August 18, 2014 from https://chroniclevitae.com/news/610-don-t-dodge-the-diversity-question
McGhee, Heather (2021). The Sum of Us: What Racism Costs Everyone and How We Can Prosper Together. New York: One World
McGlothlin, Heidi and Killen, Melanie (2006). Intergroup Attitudes of European American Children Attending Ethnically Homogeneous Schools. Child Development, 77 (5), pp. 1375 – 1386.
McKinley, James C. Jr. (July 8, 2014). Study Finds Racial Disparity in Criminal Prosecutions. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/09/nyregion/09race.html?_r=0 Retrieved June 17, 2015.
Melvin L. Oliver and Thomas M. Shapiro (2006). Black Wealth, White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York: Routledge.
Milkman, Katherine L., Akinola, Modupe, and Chugh, Dolly, What Happens Before? A Field Experiment Exploring How Pay and Representation Differentially Shape Bias on the Pathway into Organizations (2015). Journal of Applied Psychology, 100 (6), 1678-1712.
Moodian, M., & R. Hammer, M. (2009). The Intercultural Development Inventory: An Approach for Assessing and Building Intercultural Competence. In Contemporary leadership and intercultural competence: Exploring the cross-cultural dynamics within organizations. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Moscowitz, George B. (2005). Social Cognition: Understanding Self and Others. New York and London: The Guilford Press.
Munger, Kevin (2017). Tweetment Effects on the Tweeted: Experimentally
Reducing Racist Harassment. Political Behavior, (39), pages 629–649.
Murphy, Mary C. et al. (2012). Cognitive Costs of Contemporary Prejudice. Group Process and Intergroup Relations, XX (X), pages 1 – 12.
National Black Catholic Clergy Caucus (2001) A Sankofa Observance of the 500th Anniversary of the First Enslaved African to Enter the Western Hemisphere (1501-2001). http://www.inaword.com/assets/sankofa.pdf
Neville, Helen A., Poteat, V. Paul, Lewis, Jioni A., and Spanierman, Lisa B. (2014). Changes in White Students’ Colorblind Ideology over 4 Years: Do Diversity Experiences Make a Difference? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 61 (2), pages 179 – 190.
Nichols, R.L. (2009). National Expansion and Native Peoples of the United States and Canada. In D. Maybury-Lewis, T. Macdonald, & B. Maybury-Lewis (Eds.), in Manifest Destinies and Indigenous Peoples, Harvard University Press.
Nouwen, Henri J.M. (1972). The Wounded Healer. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co.
Nyenhuis, Jacob (2019). Hope College at 150: Anchored in Faith, Educating for Leadership and Service in a Global Society. Holland, MI: Van Raalte Press.
Obasogie, Osagie K. (2014). Blinded by Sight: Seeing Race through the Eyes of the Blind. Stanford, CA: Stanford Law Books.
Offermann, Lynn R., et al. (2014). See No Evil: Color Blindness and Perceptions of Subtle Racial Discrimination in the Workplace. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20 (4), pages 499 – 507.
Office of the Public Advocate for the City of New York (2013). Stop and Frisk and the Urgent Need for Meaningful Reforms.
Oltman, Adele (October 24, 2005). The Hidden History of Slavery in New York. The Nation. www.thenation.com/article/archive/hidden-history-slavery-new-york/
Ojito, M. (2000, June 5). Best of Friends, Worlds Apart. The New York Times.
Olalde, I. et al. (March 13, 2014). Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European. Nature, 507, 225 – 228.
Oliver, Melvin L. and Shapiro, Thomas M. (2006). Black Wealth, White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York: Routledge.
Omi, M. & Winant, H. (2015). Racial Formation in the United States (3rd. ed.). Routledge.
Onyeador, Ivuoma N. et al. (2020). The Value of Interracial Contact for Reducing Anti-Black Bias Among Non-Black Physicians: A Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE) Study Report. Psychological Science, 31(1), pages 18 – 30.
Onyeador, Ivuoma N.; Hudson, Sa-kiera T. J.; and Lewis, Jr., Neil A. (2021). Moving Beyond Implicit Bias Training: Policy Insights for Increasing Organizational Diversity. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8 (1), pages 19 – 26.
Orchard, Jacob, and Price, Joseph (2017). County-level racial prejudice and the black-white gap in infant health outcomes. Social Science & Medicine, 181, page 191 – 198.
Ortiz, P. (2018). An African American and Latinx History of the United States. Beacon Press.
Outten, H. Robert, Schmitt, Michael T., Miller, Daniel A. and Garcia, Amber L. (2012). Feeling Threatened About the Future: Whites’ Emotional Reactions to Anticipated Ethnic Demographic Changes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38 (1), pages 14 – 25.
Pager, Devah (2007) Marked: Race, Crime, and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1, 551 U.S. 701 (2007).
Park, R. E. (1914). Racial Assimilation in Secondary Groups with Particular Reference to the Negro. The American journal of sociology,19 (5), 606-623.
Parker Dominguez, Tyan et al. (2008). Racial Differences in Birth Outcomes: The Role of General, Pregnancy, and Racism Stress. Health Psychology, 27 (2), pages 194 – 203.
Patterson, Oliver (2006). Racism for all to see.The Church Herald.
Patterson, Orlando (1997). The Ordeal of Integration: Progress and Resentment in America’s “Racial” Crisis. Washington, D.C.: Civitas.
Payne, Keith B. (2001). Prejudice and perception: The role of automatic and controlled processes in misperceiving a weapon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81 (2), pp. 181 – 192.
Penner, Andrew M. and Saperstein, Aliya (2008). How social status shapes race. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105 (50), pages 19628 – 19630.
Penner, Louis A. et al. (2016). The Effects of Oncologist Implicit Racial Bias in Racially Discordant Oncology Interactions. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 34 (24), pages 2874 – 2881.
Perez, Charnee. (May 6, 2010) Lost Key or Bike Thief: What Would You Do? http://abcnews.go.com/WhatWouldYouDo/bike-theft/story?id=10556016 Retrieved May 30, 2014.
Perkins, Spencer and Rice, Chris (2000). More Than Equals: Racial Healing for the Sake of the Gospel. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press.
Peterson, Brooks (2004). Cultural Intelligence: A Guide to Working with People from Other Cultures. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Pettigrew, Thomas F. (January, 1979). Racial Change and Social Policy. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 441, Race and Residence in American Cities, pages 114-131.
Pettigrew, Thomas F. and Tropp, Linda R. (2006). A Meta-Analytic Test of Intergroup Contact Theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90 (5), pages 751 – 783.
Pettigrew, Thomas F. and Tropp, Linda R. (2008). How does intergroup contact reduce prejudice? Meta-analytic tests of three mediators. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, pages 922 – 934.
Pew Research Center (August 22, 2013). King’s Dream Remains an Elusive Goal; Many American See Racial Disparities. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2013/08/final_full_report_racial_disparities.pdf Retrieved June 22, 2015.
Phillips, Kevin (1990). The Politics of Rich and Poor: Wealth and the American Electorate in the Reagan Aftermath. New York: HarperPerennial.
Plant, E. Ashby, Peruche, B. Michelle, and Butz, David A. (2005). Eliminating automatic racial bias: Making race non-diagnostic for responses to criminal suspects. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41 (2), pp. 141 – 156.
Press Office, U.S. Department of Education (March 21, 2014). Expansive Survey of America’s Public Schools Reveals Troubling Racial Disparities. http://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/expansive-survey-americas-public-schools-reveals-troubling-racial-disparities Retrieved June 5, 2014.
Purnell, B. and Theoharis, J. (2019). Histories of Racism and Resistance, Seen and Unseen: How and Why to Think about the Jim Crow North. In B. Purnell and J. Theoharis (Eds.), The Strange Careers of the Jim Crow North (pp. 1 – 42). NYU Press.
Quillian, Lincoln et al. (October 10, 2017). Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114 (41), pages 10870–10875.
Rah, S. (2009). The Next Evangelicalism: Releasing the Church from Western Cultural Captivity. IVP Books.
Rah, S. (2019). Evangelical Theologies of Liberation. In M.E. Cannon and A. Smith (Eds.), Evangelical Theologies of Liberation and Justice (pp.30 – 52). InterVarsity Press.
Rah, S. and Charles, M. (2019). Unsettling Truths: The Ongoing, Dehumanizing Legacy of the Doctrine of Discovery. IVP.
Ramey, David M. (2015). The Social Structure of Criminalized and Medicalized School Discipline. Sociology of Education, 88 (3), pages 181 – 201.
Ramirez, R. and Peterson, D. (2020). Ignored Racism: White Animus toward Latinos, Cambridge University Press.
Readers: Children Learn Attitudes about Race at Home. May 25, 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/05/19/doll.study.reactions/index.html Retrieved on May 1, 2014. 27 Kenneth B. Clark (1963). Prejudice and Your Child. Boston: Beacon Press, 2nd edition.
Richeson, J.A. and Nussbaum, R.J. (2004). The Impact of Multiculturalism vs. Color-Blindness on Racial Bias. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, pages 417 – 423.
Richeson, J.A. and Shelton, J.N. (2005). Brief Report: Thin Slices of Racial Bias. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 29 (1), 75 – 86.
Richter, Greg (July 24, 2013). Rep. Steve King: Numbers show more drug ‘mules’ than valedictorians. Newsmax. http://www.newsmax.com/Newsfront/steve-king-drug-mules/2013/07/24/id/516905#ixzz2zpBN12gy Retrieved on April 24, 2014.
Rivas-Drake, Deborah (2014). Ethnic and Racial Identity in Adolescence: Implications for Psychosocial, Academic, and Health Outcomes. Child Development, 85 (1), pages 40 – 57.
Rogers, Carl R. (1961). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Romero, R.C. (2020). Brown Church: Five Centuries of Latina/o Social Justice, Theology, and Identity. IVP Academic.
Rothstein, R. (2019). De Facto Segregation: A National Myth. In Facing Segregation: Housing Policy Solutions for a Stronger Society, M.W. Metzger and Henry S. Webber (Eds.). Oxford University Press.
Rubin, Donald L. (1992). Nonlanguage factors affecting undergraduates’ judgments of nonnative English-speaking teaching assistants. Research in Higher Education, Vol 33, No. 4, pages 511 – 531.
Rudman, Laurie A., Ashmore, Richard D., and Gary, Melvin L. (2001). “Unlearning” automatic biases: The malleability of implicit prejudice and stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(5), pp. 856-868.
Ruisch, B.C. & Ferguson, M.J. (2022). Changes in Americans’ Prejudices During the Presidency of Donald Trump. Nature Human Behavior, 6, 656 – 665.
Sanchez, Juan I. and Medkik, Nohora (2004). The Effects of Diversity Awareness Training on Differential Treatment. Group & Organization Management, 29 (4), pages 517 – 536.
Salter, Phia et al. (2015). Who Needs Individual Responsibility? Audience Race and Message Content Influence Third-Party Evaluations of Political Messages. Social Psychological and Personality Science, pre-published online, downloaded July 27, 2015.
Saperstein, Aliya (2006). Double-Checking the Race Box: Examining Inconsistency Between Survey Measure of Observed and Self-Reported Race. Social Forces, 85 (1), pages 57 – 74.
Schmid, Katharina; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; and Hewstone, Miles (2014). Neighborhood Ethnic Diversity and Trust: The Role of Intergroup Contact and Perceived Threat. Psychological Science, 25 (3), pages 665–674.
Schneider, David J. (2004). The Psychology of Stereotyping. New York: The Guilford Press.
Schuette v. Bamn, 572 U.S. ___ (2014). Retrieved from Supreme Court of the United States website: http://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/13pdf/12-682_8759.pdf
Scotti, R.A. (2006). Basilica: The Splendor and the Scandal: Building St. Peter’s. Penguin Group.
Seamster, Louise, and Purifoy, Danielle (2020). What is environmental racism for? Place-based harm and relational development. Environmental Sociology, 7 (2).
Sherman, Jeffrey W., Stroessner,Steven J., Conrey, Frederica R., and Azam, Omar A. (2005). Prejudice and Stereotype Maintenance Processes: Attention, Attribution, and Individuation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89 (4), pages 607 – 622.
Shimpi, Priya Mariana and Zirkel, Sabrina (2012). One hundred and fifty years of “The Chinese Question”: An intergroup relations perspective on immigration and globalization. Journal of Social Issues, 68 (3), pages 534—558.
Shook, Natalie J. and Fazio, Russell H. (2008). Interracial Roommate Relationships: An Experimental Field Test of the Contact Hypothesis. Psychological Science, 19 (7), pages 717 – 723.
Shore, Lynn M. et al. (2011). Inclusion and Diversity in Work Groups: A Review and Model for Future Research. Journal of Management, 37 (4), pages 1262 – 1289.
Short, D. (2011). Wayne Flynt Keeps the Faith. Weld for Birmingham. Retrieved January 16, 2015 from http://weldbham.com/blog/2011/12/21/historian’s-memoir-looks-back-at-his-career-long-battle-for-social-and-political-progress-in-his-beloved-alabama/
Silva, E. (2003). The Central Frames of Color-Blind Racism. In Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in the United States. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.
Simon Romero (July 7, 2014). Neymar’s Injury Sidelines Effort to End World Cup Racism. The New York Times.
Skin Pigmentation Research Interviews [Interview by K. Cheng]. (2005). In Good Morning America. Pennsylvania: ABC.
Smedley, Brian D., Stith, Adrienne Y., and Nelson, Alan R. (Eds.) (2003). Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington, D.C., The National Academies Press.
Smith, Justin M.; Senter, Mary; and Strachan, J. Cherie (2013). Gender and White college students’ racial attitudes. Sociological Inquiry, 83 (4), pages 570 – 590.
Smith, Timothy B. and Silva, Lynda (2011). Ethnic Identity and Personal Well-Being of People of Color: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58 (1), pages 42 – 60.
Sohn, Nancy, and Harada, Nancy D. (2008). Effect of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination on the Health Status of Minority Veterans. Military Medicine, 173 (4), pages 331 – 338.
Staples, Brent (March 28, 2014). At school, it matters if you’re Black or White. The New York Times. http://takingnote.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/03/28/at-school-it-matters-if-youre-black-or-white/ Retrieved on June 13, 2015.
Steele, C. (2003) Stereotype Threat and African-American Student Achievement. In T. Perry, C. Steele, and A. G. Hilliard III, Young, Gifted, and Black (pp. 109 – 130). Boston: Beacon Press.
Stevens, Flannery G., Plaut, Victoria C., and Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey (2008). Unlocking the Benefits of Diversity: All-Inclusive Multiculturalism and Positive Organizational Change. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44 (1), pages 116 – 133.
Sue, Derald Wing (2010). Microaggressions in Everyday Life. Hoboken, N.J., John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010.
Sue, Derald Wing et al. (2019). Disarming Racial Microaggressions: Microintervention Strategies for Targets, White Allies, and Bystanders. American Psychologist, 74 (1), pages 128 – 142.
Tajfel, H. and Turner, J.C. (1979). An Integrative Theory of Intergroup Conflict. In W.G. Austin and S. Worchel (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 33 – 48). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Takaki R. (1998). Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (Updated and revised edition). Little, Brown and Company.
Tatum, Beverly D. (1997). Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria? And Other Conversations about Race. New York: Basic Books.
Tausch, Nicole and Hewstone, Miles (2013). Intergroup Contact. In Dovidio, John F., Hewstone, Miles, Glick, Peter, and Esses, Victoria M. (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
Telles, E. (2014). Pigmentocracies: Ethnicity, Race, and Color in Latin America. The University of North Carolina Press.
Tervalon, Melanie and Murray-Garcia, Jann (1998). Cultural Humility vs. Cultural Competence: A Critical Distinction in Defining Physician Training Outcomes in Multicultural Education. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 9 (2), pages 117 – 125.
Tesler, M. (2012). The Spillover of Racialization into Health Care: How President Obama Polarized Public Opinion by Racial Attitudes and Race. American Journal of Political Science, 56(3), 690–704.
Tesler, M. (2016). Post-Racial or Most-Racial? Race and Politics in the Obama Era. University of Chicago Press.
Tessum, Christopher W. et al. (March 26, 2019). Inequity in consumption of goods and services adds to racial–ethnic disparities in air pollution exposure. PNAS, 166 (13), pages 6001 – 6006.
Tessum, Christopher W. et al. (April 28, 2021). PM2.5 polluters disproportionately and systemically affect people of color in the United States. Science Advances, 7.
Thurman, H. (1996). Jesus and the Disinherited. Beacon Press. (Originally published in 1949 by Abingdon Press.)
Ting-Toomey, Stella (1999). Communicating Across Cultures. New York: The Guilford Press.
Tisby, J. (2020). The Color of Compromise: The Truth about the American Church’s Complicity in Racism. Zondervan.
Todd, Andrew R., Bodenhausen, Galen V., Richeson, Jennifer A., and Galinsky, Adam D. (2011). (2011, March 7). Perspective Taking Combats Automatic Expressions of Racial Bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0022308
Tope, D., Pickett, J.T., and Chiricos, T. (2015). Anti-minority attitudes and Tea Party Movement membership. Social Science Research, 51, 322-337, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2014.09.006.
Trent, Maria; Dooley, Danielle G.; and Dougé, Jacqueline, AAP Section on Adolescent Health, AAP Council on Community Pediatrics, AAP Committee on Adolescence (2019). The Impact of Racism on Child and Adolescent Health. Pediatrics, 144 (2).
Tynes, Brendesha M. and Markoe, Suzanne L. (2010). The Role of Color-Blind Racial Attitudes in Reactions to Racial Discrimination on Social Network Sites. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 3 (1), pages 1 – 13.
Tyson, Timothy B. (2004). Blood Done Sign My Name. New York: Crown Publishers
Unzueta, Miguel M. and Binning, Kevin R. (2012). Diversity is in the Eye of the Beholder: How Concern for the Ingroup Affects Perceptions of Racial Diversity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38 (1), pages 26 – 38.
Vandiver, Beverly J., Cross, William E., Jr., Worrell, Frank C., and Peony E. Fhagen-Smith (2002). Validating the Cross Racial Identity Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49 (1), pages 71 – 85.
Waldstreicher, D. (2009). Slavery’s Constitution: From Revolution to Ratification. Hill and Wang.
Webb, S. and Nelson, R.W. (1980). Selma, Lord, Selma. University of Alabama Press.
Whitehead, A.L. and Perry, S.L. (2022). Taking America Back for God: Christian Nationalism in the United States. Oxford University Press.
Whitman, James Q. (2017). Hitler’s American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
Wilkins, Clara L. and Kaiser, Cheryl L. (2014). Racial Progress as Threat to the Status Hierarchy: Implications for Perceptions of Anti-White Bias. Psychological Science, 25 (2), pages 439 – 446.
Williams, David R., Neighbors, Harold W., & Jackson, James S. (2003). Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Health: Findings From Community Studies. American Journal of Public Health, 93(2), 200-208.
Williams, Monnica and Halstead, Mailae (2019). Racial Microaggressions as Barriers to Treatment in Clinical Care. Directions in Psychiatry, 39 (4), pages 265 – 280.
Winling, L.C. and Michney, T.M. (June, 2021). The Roots of Redlining: Academic, Governmental, and Professional Networks in the Making of the New Deal Lending Regime. Journal of American History, 108 (1), 42-69.
Wu, E.D. (2017). The Invention of the Model Minority. In C I. Cheng (Ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Asian American Studies. Routledge.
Xiao, Wen et al. (2015). Individuation training with other-race faces reduces preschoolers’ implicit racial bias: a link between perceptual and social representation of faces in children. Developmental Science, 18 (4), pages 655–663.
Yancey, George A. (2003). One Body, One Spirit: Principles of Effective Multiracial Churches. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Books.
Yang, P.Q. (2011). Asian Immigration to the United States. Polity Press.
Yellin, E.S. (2013). Racism in the Nation’s Service: Government Workers and the Color Line in Woodrow Wilson’s America. The University of North Carolina Press.
Zou, L. and Cheryan, S. (2017). Two Axes of Subordination: A New Model of Racial Position. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 112 (5), 696–717.
Zou, L. and Dickter, C. L. (2013). Perceptions of Racial Confrontation: The Role of Color Blindness and Comment Ambiguity. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 19 (1), pages 92 – 96.