Allport, Gordon W. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
American Anthropological Association Statement on “Race.” (May 17, 1998). http://www.aaanet.org/stmts/racepp.htm
Apfelbaum, Evan P., Norton, Michael I., and Sommers, Samuel R. (2012). Racial Color Blindness: Emergence, Practice, and Implications. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21 (3), pages 205 – 2009.
Apfelbaum, Evan P., Pauker, Kristin, Sommers, Samuel R., and Ambady, Nalini (2012). A Colorblind Mindset Reduces White Children’s Ability to See Racism. Psychological Science, 21 (11), pages 1587 – 1592.
Baker, Al (May 27, 2010). Bias Seen in ‘Police-on-Police Shootings. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/27/nyregion/27shoot.html?module=Search&mabReward=relbias%3As&_r=0 Retrieved July 2, 2014.
Bañales, Josefina; Banks, Kira Hudson; and Burke, Meghan A. (2021). The impact of a diversity intervention on White college students’ colour-blind racial attitudes. Whiteness and Education, DOI: 10.1080/23793406.2020.1867480.
Bar-Haim, Yair et al. (2006). Nature and nurture in own-race face processing. Psychological Science, 17 (2), pp. 159 – 163.
Barndt, Joseph (2007). Understanding and Dismantling Racism: The Twenty-First Century Challenge to White America. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
Baron de Montesquieu, de Secondat, Charles. The Spirit of Laws. Kitchener, Ontario, CAN: Batoche Books, 2001. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 6 July 2015.
Copyright © 2001. Batoche Books. All rights reserved.
Bentele, Keith G. and O’Brien, Erin E. (2013). Jim Crow 2.0? Why States Consider and Adopt Restrictive Voter Access Policies. Perspectives on Politics, 11 (4), pages 1088 – 1116.
Bertrand, Marianne and Mullainathan, Sendhi (2004). Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination. The American Economic Review, 94 (4), pages 991 – 1013.
Betancourt, Joseph R., Green, Alexander R., Carrillo, J. Emilio, and Ananeh-Firempong II, Owusu (2003). Defining Cultural Competence: A Practical Framework for Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care. Public Health Reports, 118, pages 293 – 302.
Biernat, Monica (2003). Toward a Broader View of Social Stereotyping. American Psychologist, 58 (12), pages 1019 – 1027.
Biernat, Monica, and Ma, Jennifer E. (2005). Stereotypes and the confirmability of trait concepts. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31 (4), pages 483 – 495.
Binder, Amy (1993). Constructing Racial Rhetoric: Media Depictions of Harm in Heavy Metal and Rap Music. American Sociological Review, 58 (6), pages 753 – 767.
Bobo, Lawrence D. et al. (2012). The Real Record on Racial Attitudes. In Marsden, Peter V. (Ed.), Social Trends in American Life: Findings from the General Social Survey Since 1972. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo (2003). Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Inequality in the United States. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
Bracey, Glenn E. II and Moore, Wendy Leo (2017). “Race Tests”: Racial Boundary Maintenance in White Evangelical Churches. Sociological Inquiry, 87 (2), pages 282 – 302.
Brannon, Tiffany N., Markus, Hazel Rose, and Jones Taylor, Valerie (2015). “Two Souls, Two Thoughts,” Two Self-Schemas: Double Consciousness Can Have Positive Academic Consequences for African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108 (4), pages 586–609.
Brodkin, Karen (1998). How Jews Became White Folks & What that Says about Race in America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Bruins, Elton J. and Schakel, Karen G. (2011). Envisioning Hope College: Letters Written by Albertus C. Van Raalte to Philip Phelps, Jr., 1857 – 1875. Grand Rapids, Mich.: W. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee (2006). Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2005. U.S. Census Bureau, http://www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs/p60-231.pdf
Castelli, Luigi, Zogmaister, Cristina, and Tomelleri, Sylvia (2009). The transmission of racial attitudes within the family. Developmental Psychology, 45 (2), pages 586 – 591.
Chang, Edward H. et al. (2019). The mixed effects of online diversity training. PNAS, 116, (16), pages 7778-7783.
Cheryan, Sapna and Monin, Benoȋt (2005). “Where are you really from?”: Asian Americans and Identity Denial. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89 (5), pages 717 – 730.
Chetty, Raj et al. (2014). Is the United States Still a Land of Opportunity? Recent Trends in Intergenerational Mobility. American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings, 104 (5), pages 141 – 147.
Cikara, Mina and Van Bavel Jay J. (2014). The Neuroscience of Intergroup Relations. An Integrative Review. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9 (3), pages 245 – 274.
Coates, Ta-Nehisi (2015). Between the World and Me. New York: Spiegel and Grau.
Cohen, Claudia E. (1981). Person Categories and Social Perception: Testing Some Boundaries of the Processing Effects of Prior Knowledge. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40 (3), pages 441 – 452.
Conley, Dalton (2003). Being Black, Living in the Red: Race, Wealth, and Social Policy in America. In Dalton Conley (Ed.), Wealth and Poverty in America: A Reader. Padstow, Cornwall, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
Cone, James (1969/2019). Black Theology and Black Power (Anniversary Edition). Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books.
Cose, E. (1993). A Dozen Demons. In The Rage of a Privileged Class. New York: HarperCollins.
Cox, Oliver Cromwell (1948). Caste, Class, and Race. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Craig, Maureen A. and Richeson, Jennifer A. (2014). On the Precipice of a “Majority-Minority” America: Perceived Status Threat From the Racial Demographic Shift Affects White Americans’ Political Ideology. Psychological Science, 25 (6), pages 1189 – 1197.
Cross, W. E., Jr. (1971). The Negro-to-Black conversion experience. Black World, 20 (9), 13–27.
Cuddy, Amy J. C., Fiske, Susan T., and Glick, Peter (2007). The BIAS Map: Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92 (4), pages 631 – 648.
Darling-Hammond, Sean et al. (2020). After “The China Virus Went Viral: Racially Charged Coronavirus Coverage and Trends in Bias Against Asian Americans. Health Education and Behavior, 47 (6), pages 870 – 879.
Delgado, Richard (October 11, 2005). Is Race a Social Construct? What about Your Teenager? Blackprof.com. Retrieved November 22, 2005.
Devine, Patricia G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56 (1), pp. 5 – 18.
Devine, Patricia G., Forscher, Patrick S., Austin, Anthony J., and Cox, William T.L. (2012). Long-term Reduction in Implicit Race Bias: A Prejudice Habit-Breaking Intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, pages 1267 – 1278.
Devos, Thierry and Ma, Debbie S. (2008). Is Kate Winslet more American than Lucy Liu? The impact of construal processes on the implicit ascription of a national identity. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47 (2), pages 191 – 215.
Dhanani, Lindsay Y. and Franz, Berkeley (2021). Why public health framing matters: An experimental study of the effects of COVID-19 framing on prejudice and xenophobia in the United States. Social Science and Medicine, 269, 113572.
Dillion, S. (2009, January 22). Study Sees an Obama Effect as Lifting Black Test-Takers. The New York Times. Retrieved October 23, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/23/education/23gap.html
Dovidio, J. F. and Gaertner, S. L. (1998). On the Nature of Contemporary Prejudice.” In J.L. Eberhardt and S.T. Fiske (Eds.), Confronting racism: The problem and the response (pp. 3 – 32). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Duncan, Birt L. (1976). Differential Social Perception and Attribution of Intergroup Violence: Testing the Lower Limits of Stereotyping Blacks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34 (4), pages 590 – 598.
D’Vera Cohn (May 5, 2014). Millions of Americans Changed their Racial or Ethnic Identity from One Census to the Next. Pew Research Center. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/05/05/millions-of-americans-changed-their-racial-or-ethnic-identity-from-one-census-to-the-next/
Eagly, Alice H. and Steffen, Valerie J. (1984). Gender stereotypes stem from the distribution of women and men into social roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46 (4), pp. 735-754.
Eberhardt, Jennifer L. et al. (2006). Looking deathworthy: Perceived stereotypicality of black defendants predicts capital-sentencing outcomes. Psychological Science, 17 (5), pages 383 – 386.
Eibach, Richard P. and Ehrlinger, Joyce (2006). “Keep your eyes on the prize”: Reference points and racial differences in assessing progress toward equality. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32 (1), pp. 66 – 77.
Emerson, M., & Smith, C. (2000). Divided by faith: Evangelical religion and the problem of race in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Emerson, M. (Director) (2014, October 16). Question-and-Answer with Professor Michael Emerson. Lecture conducted from Hope College, Holland.
Ernst, H.M., Kuhlmann, B.G., and Vogel, T. (2019). The Origin of Illusory Correlation, Experimental Psychology, 66(3), 195–206
Eugene M. Caruso, Nicole L. Mead, and Emily Balcetis (2009). Political partisanship influences perception of biracial candidates’ skin tone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106 (48), pages 20168 – 20173.
Falicov, Celia J. (2001). The cultural meanings of money: The case of Latinos and Anglo-Americans. The American Behavioral Scientist, 45 (2), pages 313 – 328.
Fish, Jefferson M. (Nov-Dec 1995). Mixed blood. (the myth of racial classifications). Psychology Today, 28, (8), page 55.
Fiske, Susan T. (2018). Stereotype Content: Warmth and Competence Endure. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27 (2), pages 67 – 73.
Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J., Glick, P., Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 878–902.
Franz, Berkeley; Milner, Adrienne N., and Brown, R. Khari (2021). Opposition to the Affordabel Care Act has little to do with healthcare. Race and Social Problems, 13, pages 161 – 169.
Fredrickson, George (2002). Racism: A Short History. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Quotation from page 17.
Fox, H. (2001). Mixing it up: Reactions of students of color. In When race breaks out conversations about race and racism in college classrooms. New York: Peter Lang.
Gaertner, Samuel L. and Dovidio, John F. (1977). The Subtlety of White Racism, Arousal, and Helping Behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35 (10), pages 691 – 707.
Galinsky, Adam D. and Moskowitz, Gordon B. (2000) Perspective-Taking: Decreasing Stereotype Expression, Stereotype Accessibility, and In-Group Favoritism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78 (4), pages 708-724.
Gibson, Campbell J. and Lennon, Emily (February, 1999). “Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-born Population of the United States: 1850-1990.” Population Division Working Paper No. 29, http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0029/twps0029.html
Gibson, Margaret and Ogbu, John (1991). Minority status and schooling: A comparative study of immigrant and involuntary minorities. New York: Garland.
Good, C., Stroessner, S., & Webster, L. (n.d.). ReducingStereotypeThreat.org. Retrieved October 23, 2014, from http://reducingstereotypethreat.org
Greg Richter (July 24, 2013). Rep. Steve King: Numbers show more drug ‘mules’ than valedictorians. Newsmax. http://www.newsmax.com/Newsfront/steve-king-drugmules/2013/07/24/id/516905#ixzz2zpBN12gy Retrieved on April 24, 2014
Green, C. (2014). When Being Nice Isn’t Enough. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved August 18, 2014, from http://chronicle.com/article/When-Being-Nice-Isnt-Enough/146727/
Greenaway, Katharine H. et al. (2015). From “We” to “Me”: Group Identification Enhances Perceived Personal Control With Consequences for Health and Well-Being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109 (1), pages 53 – 74.
Gregg, Aiden P., Seibt,Beate, and Banaji, Mahzarin R. (2006). Easier done than undone: Asymmetry in the malleability of implicit preferences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90 (1), pages 1 – 20.
Gurin, P. (2003). The Impact of Structural Diversity, Classroom Diversity, and Informal Interactional Diversity on Education: Social Science Research Evidence. From A Compelling Need for Diversity in Higher Education, documents submitted by the University of Michigan to the U.S. Supreme Court for its affirmative action cases in 2003.
Hacker, Andrew (1992). Two Nations: Black and White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Hartman, Saidiya (2007). Lose Your Mother: A Journey Along the Atlantic Slave Route. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
Hattam, Victoria (2005). Ethnicity & and boundaries of race: Rereading Directive 15. Daedalus, 134, 1, pages 61 – 69.
Helms, J. E. (1995). An update of Helms’s White and People of Color Racial Identity models. In J. Ponterotto, L. A. Suzuki, & C. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of Multicultural Counseling (pp. 181–198). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Heschel, Abraham Joshua (2020). Essential Writings. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books.
Hobbs, Allyson (2014). A Chosen Exile: A History of Racial Passing in American Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Holoien, Deborah Son and Shelton, J. Nicole (2012). You Deplete Me: The Cognitive Cost of Colorblindness on Ethnic Minorities. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, pages 562 – 565.
Houts Picca, Lesley and Feagin, Joe R. (2007). Two-Faced Racism: Whites in Backstage and Frontstage. New York: Routledge.
Hudson, Nicholas (2004) ‘Hottentots’ and the evolution of European Racism. Journal of European Studies, 34 (4), pages 308–332.
Johnson, Megan K.; Rowatt, Wade C.; and LaBouff, Jordan (2010). Priming Christian Religious Concepts Increases Racial Prejudice. Social Psychology and Personality Science, 1 (2), pages 119 – 126.
Jones, Jacqueline (2013). A Dreadful Deceit: The Myth of Race from the Colonial Era to Obama’s America. New York: Basic Books.
Jones, J. M. (1997). Prejudice and racism. New York: McGraw-Hill. Taken from pg. 399.
Jones, Melinda (2002). Social psychology of prejudice. Upper Saddle River , NJ : Prentice Hall.
Jones, Robert P (2020). White Too Long: The Legacy of White Supremacy in American Christianity. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster.
Kalev, Alexandra, Dobbin, Frank, and Kelly, Erin (2006). Best Practices or Best Guesses? Assessing the Efficacy of Corporate Affirmative Action and Diversity Policies. American Sociological Review, 71, pages 589 – 617.
Kang, Sonia K.; DeCelles, Katherine A.; Tilcsik, András; and Jun, Sora (2016). Whitened Résumés: Race and Self-Presentation in the Labor Market. Administrative Science Quarterly, 61 (3), pages 469 – 502.
Katznelson, Ira (2006). When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Kendi, Ibram X. (2019). How to Be an Antiracist. New York: One World.
Kelsey, George D. (1965). Racism and the Christian Understanding of Man. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Kids’ Test Answers on Race Brings Mother to Tears. May 25, 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/05/18/doll.study.parents/index.html Retrieved on May 1, 2014.
Kim, Claire Jean (1999). The Racial Triangulation of Asian-Americans. Politics and Society, 27 (1), pages 105 – 138.
Knowles, Eric D., Lowery, Brian S., Hogan, Caitlin M., and Chow, Rosalind M. (2009). On the Malleability of Ideology: Motivated Construals of Color Blindness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96 (4), pages 857 – 869.
Kteily, Nour, Bruneau, Emile, Waytz, Adam, and Cotterill, Sarah (2015, June 29). The Ascent of Man: Theoretical and Empirical Evidence for Blatant Dehumanization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/279513347/
Krysan, Maria and Lewis, Amanda (May-June 2005). Racial Discrimination is Alive and Well, Challenge, 48 (3), pp. 34 – 49. Profs. Krysan and Lewis are the editors of The Changing Terrain of Race and Ethnicity. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2004.
Kuo, Entung Ena, Kraus, Michael W., and Richeson, Jennifer (2020). High-Status Exemplars and the Misperception of the Asian-White Wealth Gap. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 11 (3), pages 397 – 405.
Lamason, Rebecca L. et al. (December 16, 2005) SLC24A5, a Putative Cation Exchanger, Affects Pigmentation in Zebrafish and Humans. Science: 310 (5755), pp. 1782 – 1786.
Lee, Cynthia (2013). Making Race Salient: Trayvon Martin and Implicit Bias in a Not Yet Post-Racial Society. North Carolina Law Review, 91, pages 1555 – 1612.
Lee, Suyeon and Waters, Sara F. (2021). Asians and Asian Americans’ Experiences of Racial Discrimination During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Impacts on Health Outcomes and the Buffering Role of Social Support. Stigma and Health, 6 (1), pages 70 – 78.
Li, Yao and Nicholson, Harvey L. (2021). When “model minorities” become “yellow peril”—Othering and the racialization of Asian Americans in the COVID‐19 pandemic. Sociology Compass, 2021-02, Vol.15 (2), p.e12849-n/a.
Locke, Dexter H. (2021). Residential housing segregation and urban tree canopy in 37 US Cities. npr Urban Sustainability, pages 1 – 9.
López, Ian Haney (2013). Dog Whistle Politics: How Coded Racial Appeals Have Reinvented Racism and Wrecked the Middle Class. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Martin, C. (2014, August 15). To Be White and Reckon with the Death of Michael Brown. Retrieved January 16, 2015, from http://www.onbeing.org/blog/to-be-white-and-reckon-with-the-death-of-michael-brown/6710
Mallett, Robyn K., Wagner, Dana E., and Harrison, Patrick R. (2011). Understanding the Intergroup Forecasting Error. In Tropp, Linda R. and Mallett, Robyn K. (Eds.), Moving Beyond Prejudice Reduction: Pathways to Positive Intergroup Relations. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Marcelo, Ana K. and Yates, Tuppett M. (2019). Young Children’s Ethnic–Racial Identity Moderates the Impact of Early Discrimination Experiences on Child Behavior Problems. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 25 (2), pages 253 – 265
Markus, Hazel Rose, Steele, Claude M., and Steele, Dorothy M. (2000) Colorblindness as a Barrier to Inclusion: Assimilation and Nonimmigrant Minorities. Daedalus, 129 (4), pages 233 – 259.
Massey, Douglas S. and Denton, Nancy A. (1998). American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Boston: Harvard University Press.
Massey, Douglas S. (March 22, 2003). The Race Case. The American Prospect, 14 (3).
Massey, Douglas S. (March, 2016). Residential Segregation is the Linchpin of Racial Stratification. City Community, 15(1), pages 4–7.
Matos, N. (2014, July 16). Don’t Dodge the Diversity Question! The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved August 18, 2014 from https://chroniclevitae.com/news/610-don-t-dodge-the-diversity-question
McGhee, Heather (2021). The Sum of Us: What Racism Costs Everyone and How We Can Prosper Together. New York: One World
McGlothlin, Heidi and Killen, Melanie (2006). Intergroup Attitudes of European American Children Attending Ethnically Homogeneous Schools. Child Development, 77 (5), pp. 1375 – 1386.
McKinley, James C. Jr. (July 8, 2014). Study Finds Racial Disparity in Criminal Prosecutions. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/09/nyregion/09race.html?_r=0 Retrieved June 17, 2015.
Melvin L. Oliver and Thomas M. Shapiro (2006). Black Wealth, White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York: Routledge.
Milkman, Katherine L., Akinola, Modupe, and Chugh, Dolly, What Happens Before? A Field Experiment Exploring How Pay and Representation Differentially Shape Bias on the Pathway into Organizations (2015). Journal of Applied Psychology, 100 (6), 1678-1712.
Moodian, M., & R. Hammer, M. (2009). The Intercultural Development Inventory: An Approach for Assessing and Building Intercultural Competence. In Contemporary leadership and intercultural competence: Exploring the cross-cultural dynamics within organizations. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Moscowitz, George B. (2005). Social Cognition: Understanding Self and Others. New York and London: The Guilford Press.
Munger, Kevin (2017). Tweetment Effects on the Tweeted: Experimentally
Reducing Racist Harassment. Political Behavior, (39), pages 629–649.
Murphy, Mary C. et al. (2012). Cognitive Costs of Contemporary Prejudice. Group Process and Intergroup Relations, XX (X), pages 1 – 12.
National Black Catholic Clergy Caucus (2001) A Sankofa Observance of the 500th Anniversary of the First Enslaved African to Enter the Western Hemisphere (1501-2001). http://www.inaword.com/assets/sankofa.pdf
Neville, Helen A., Poteat, V. Paul, Lewis, Jioni A., and Spanierman, Lisa B. (2014). Changes in White Students’ Colorblind Ideology over 4 Years: Do Diversity Experiences Make a Difference? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 61 (2), pages 179 – 190.
Nouwen, Henri J.M. (1972). The Wounded Healer. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co.
Nyenhuis, Jacob (2019). Hope College at 150: Anchored in Faith, Educating for Leadership and Service in a Global Society. Holland, MI: Van Raalte Press.
Obasogie, Osagie K. (2014). Blinded by Sight: Seeing Race through the Eyes of the Blind. Stanford, CA: Stanford Law Books.
Offermann, Lynn R., et al. (2014). See No Evil: Color Blindness and Perceptions of Subtle Racial Discrimination in the Workplace. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20 (4), pages 499 – 507.
Office of the Public Advocate for the City of New York (2013). Stop and Frisk and the Urgent Need for Meaningful Reforms.
Oltman, Adele (October 24, 2005). The Hidden History of Slavery in New York. The Nation. www.thenation.com/article/archive/hidden-history-slavery-new-york/
Ojito, M. (2000, June 5). Best of Friends, Worlds Apart. The New York Times.
Oliver, Melvin L. and Shapiro, Thomas M. (2006). Black Wealth, White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York: Routledge.
Onyeador, Ivuoma N.; Hudson, Sa-kiera T. J.; and Lewis, Jr., Neil A. (2021). Moving Beyond Implicit Bias Training: Policy Insights for Increasing Organizational Diversity. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8 (1), pages 19 – 26.
Outten, H. Robert, Schmitt, Michael T., Miller, Daniel A. and Garcia, Amber L. (2012). Feeling Threatened About the Future: Whites’ Emotional Reactions to Anticipated Ethnic Demographic Changes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38 (1), pages 14 – 25.
Pager, Devah (2007) Marked: Race, Crime, and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1, 551 U.S. 701 (2007).
Patterson, Oliver (2006). Racism for all to see.The Church Herald.
Patterson, Orlando (1997). The Ordeal of Integration: Progress and Resentment in America’s “Racial” Crisis. Washington, D.C.: Civitas.
Payne, Keith B. (2001). Prejudice and perception: The role of automatic and controlled processes in misperceiving a weapon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81 (2), pp. 181 – 192.
Penner, Andrew M. and Saperstein, Aliya (2008). How social status shapes race. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105 (50), pages 19628 – 19630.
Perez, Charnee. (May 6, 2010) Lost Key or Bike Thief: What Would You Do? http://abcnews.go.com/WhatWouldYouDo/bike-theft/story?id=10556016 Retrieved May 30, 2014.
Perkins, Spencer and Rice, Chris (2000). More Than Equals: Racial Healing for the Sake of the Gospel. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press.
Peterson, Brooks (2004). Cultural Intelligence: A Guide to Working with People from Other Cultures. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Pettigrew, Thomas F. (January, 1979). Racial Change and Social Policy. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 441, Race and Residence in American Cities, pages 114-131.
Pettigrew, Thomas F. and Tropp, Linda R. (2006). A Meta-Analytic Test of Intergroup Contact Theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90 (5), pages 751 – 783.
Pew Research Center (August 22, 2013). King’s Dream Remains an Elusive Goal; Many American See Racial Disparities. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2013/08/final_full_report_racial_disparities.pdf Retrieved June 22, 2015.
Phillips, Kevin (1990). The Politics of Rich and Poor: Wealth and the American Electorate in the Reagan Aftermath. New York: HarperPerennial.
Plant, E. Ashby, Peruche, B. Michelle, and Butz, David A. (2005). Eliminating automatic racial bias: Making race non-diagnostic for responses to criminal suspects. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41 (2), pp. 141 – 156.
Press Office, U.S. Department of Education (March 21, 2014). Expansive Survey of America’s Public Schools Reveals Troubling Racial Disparities. http://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/expansive-survey-americas-public-schools-reveals-troubling-racial-disparities Retrieved June 5, 2014.
Quillian, Lincoln et al. (October 10, 2017). Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114 (41), pages 10870–10875.
Ramey, David M. (2015). The Social Structure of Criminalized and Medicalized School Discipline. Sociology of Education, 88 (3), pages 181 – 201.
Readers: Children Learn Attitudes about Race at Home. May 25, 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/05/19/doll.study.reactions/index.html Retrieved on May 1, 2014. 27 Kenneth B. Clark (1963). Prejudice and Your Child. Boston: Beacon Press, 2nd edition.
Richeson, Jennifer A. and Nussbaum, Richard J. (2004). The Impact of Multiculturalism vs. Color-Blindness on Racial Bias. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, pages 417 – 423.
Richter, Greg (July 24, 2013). Rep. Steve King: Numbers show more drug ‘mules’ than valedictorians. Newsmax. http://www.newsmax.com/Newsfront/steve-king-drug-mules/2013/07/24/id/516905#ixzz2zpBN12gy Retrieved on April 24, 2014.
Rivas-Drake, Deborah (2014). Ethnic and Racial Identity in Adolescence: Implications for Psychosocial, Academic, and Health Outcomes. Child Development, 85 (1), pages 40 – 57.
Rogers, Carl R. (1961). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Rubin, Donald L. (1992). Nonlanguage factors affecting undergraduates’ judgments of nonnative English-speaking teaching assistants. Research in Higher Education, Vol 33, No. 4, pages 511 – 531.
Rudman, Laurie A., Ashmore, Richard D., and Gary,Melvin L. (2001). “Unlearning” automatic biases: The malleability of implicit prejudice and stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(5), pp. 856-868.
Sanchez, Juan I. and Medkik, Nohora (2004). The Effects of Diversity Awareness Training on Differential Treatment. Group & Organization Management, 29 (4), pages 517 – 536.
Salter, Phia et al. (2015). Who Needs Individual Responsibility? Audience Race and Message Content Influence Third-Party Evaluations of Political Messages. Social Psychological and Personality Science, pre-published online, downloaded July 27, 2015.
Schneider, David J. (2004). The Psychology of Stereotyping. New York: The Guilford Press.
Schuette v. Bamn, 572 U.S. ___ (2014). Retrieved from Supreme Court of the United States website: http://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/13pdf/12-682_8759.pdf
Seamster, Louise, and Purifoy, Danielle (2020). What is environmental racism for? Place-based harm and relational development. Environmental Sociology, 7 (2).
Sherman, Jeffrey W., Stroessner,Steven J., Conrey, Frederica R., and Azam, Omar A. (2005). Prejudice and Stereotype Maintenance Processes: Attention, Attribution, and Individuation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89 (4), pages 607 – 622.
Shimpi, Priya Mariana and Zirkel, Sabrina (2012). One hundred and fifty years of “The Chinese Question”: An intergroup relations perspective on immigration and globalization. Journal of Social Issues, 68 (3), pages 534—558.
Shore, Lynn M. et al. (2011). Inclusion and Diversity in Work Groups: A Review and Model for Future Research. Journal of Management, 37 (4), pages 1262 – 1289.
Short, D. (2011). Wayne Flynt Keeps the Faith. Weld for Birmingham. Retrieved January 16, 2015 from http://weldbham.com/blog/2011/12/21/historian’s-memoir-looks-back-at-his-career-long-battle-for-social-and-political-progress-in-his-beloved-alabama/
Silva, E. (2003). The Central Frames of Color-Blind Racism. In Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in the United States. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.
Simon Romero (July 7, 2014). Neymar’s Injury Sidelines Effort to End World Cup Racism. The New York Times.
Skin Pigmentation Research Interviews [Interview by K. Cheng]. (2005). In Good Morning America. Pennsylvania: ABC.
Smedley, Brian D., Stith, Adrienne Y., and Nelson, Alan R. (Eds.) (2003). Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington, D.C., The National Academies Press.
Smith, Justin M.; Senter, Mary; and Strachan, J. Cherie (2013). Gender and White college students’ racial attitudes. Sociological Inquiry, 83 (4), pages 570 – 590.
Smith, Timothy B. and Silva, Lynda (2011). Ethnic Identity and Personal Well-Being of People of Color: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58 (1), pages 42 – 60.
Sohn, Nancy, and Harada, Nancy D. (2008). Effect of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination on the Health Status of Minority Veterans. Military Medicine, 173 (4), pages 331 – 338.
Staples, Brent (March 28, 2014). At school, it matters if you’re Black or White. The New York Times. http://takingnote.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/03/28/at-school-it-matters-if-youre-black-or-white/ Retrieved on June 13, 2015.
Steele, C. (2003) Stereotype Threat and African-American Student Achievement. In T. Perry, C. Steele, and A. G. Hilliard III, Young, Gifted, and Black (pp. 109 – 130). Boston: Beacon Press.
Stevens, Flannery G., Plaut, Victoria C., and Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey (2008). Unlocking the Benefits of Diversity: All-Inclusive Multiculturalism and Positive Organizational Change. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44 (1), pages 116 – 133.
Sue, Derald Wing (2010). Microaggressions in Everyday Life. Hoboken, N.J., John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010.
Sue, Derald Wing et al. (2019). Disarming Racial Microaggressions: Microintervention Strategies for Targets, White Allies, and Bystanders. American Psychologist, 74 (1), pages 128 – 142.
Tajfel, H. and Turner, J.C. (1979). An Integrative Theory of Intergroup Conflict. In W.G. Austin and S. Worchel (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 33 – 48). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole
Tatum, Beverly D. (1997). Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria? And Other Conversations about Race. New York: Basic Books.
Tausch, Nicole and Hewstone, Miles (2013). Intergroup Contact. In Dovidio, John F., Hewstone, Miles, Glick, Peter, and Esses, Victoria M. (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
Tervalon, Melanie and Murray-Garcia, Jann (1998). Cultural Humility vs. Cultural Competence: A Critical Distinction in Defining Physician Training Outcomes in Multicultural Education. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 9 (2), pages 117 – 125.
Tesler, M. (2012, April 10). The Spillover of Racialization into Evaluations of Bo Obama. Retrieved October 14, 2014, from http://today.yougov.com/news/2012/04/10/spillover-racialization-evaluations-bo-obama/
Tessum, Christopher W. et al. (March 26, 2019). Inequity in consumption of goods and services adds to racial–ethnic disparities in air pollution exposure. PNAS, 166 (13), pages 6001 – 6006.
Tessum, Christopher W. et al. (April 28, 2021). PM2.5 polluters disproportionately and systemically affect people of color in the United States. Science Advances, 7.
Ting-Toomey, Stella (1999). Communicating Across Cultures. New York: The Guilford Press.
Todd, Andrew R., Bodenhausen, Galen V., Richeson, Jennifer A., and Galinsky, Adam D. (2011). (2011, March 7). Perspective Taking Combats Automatic Expressions of Racial Bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0022308
Tynes, Brendesha M. and Markoe, Suzanne L. (2010). The Role of Color-Blind Racial Attitudes in Reactions to Racial Discrimination on Social Network Sites. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 3 (1), pages 1 – 13.
Tyson, Timothy B. (2004). Blood Done Sign My Name. New York: Crown Publishers
Vandiver, Beverly J., Cross, William E., Jr., Worrell, Frank C., and Peony E. Fhagen-Smith (2002). Validating the Cross Racial Identity Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49 (1), pages 71 – 85.
Whitman, James Q. (2017). Hitler’s American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
Wilkins, Clara L. and Kaiser, Cheryl L. (2014). Racial Progress as Threat to the Status Hierarchy: Implications for Perceptions of Anti-White Bias. Psychological Science, 25 (2), pages 439 – 446.
Williams, David R., Neighbors, Harold W., & Jackson, James S. (2003). Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Health: Findings From Community Studies. American Journal of Public Health, 93(2), 200-208.
Xiao, Wen et al. (2015). Individuation training with other-race faces reduces preschoolers’ implicit racial bias: a link between perceptual and social representation of faces in children. Developmental Science, 18 (4), pages 655–663.
Yancey, George A. (2003). One Body, One Spirit: Principles of Effective Multiracial Churches. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Books.
Zou, Linda X. and Dickter, Cheryl L. (2013). Perceptions of Racial Confrontation: The Role of Color Blindness and Comment Ambiguity. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 19 (1), pages 92 – 96.