Claiming My Education: “Inclusive Design, Ethical Tech, and All of Us”: An Event Review

Claiming My Education: “Inclusive Design, Ethical Tech, and All of Us”–An Event Review

By Gracyn Carter

“Student Feature” is our newest addition to the WGS blog. Student-scholars enrolled in WGS courses have consented to share their experiences inside and outside the classroom with the Hope community. Today, one student reviews the April 2, 2019 event, “Inclusive Design, Ethical Tech, and All of Us.”

I attended a presentation by speaker and author Sara Wachter-Boettcher entitled “Inclusive Design, Ethical Tech, and All of Us” on April 2, 2019, an event co-sponsored by the Women’s and Gender Studies Program, Computer Science Department, the Dean of Natural and Applied Sciences, and the Mellon Grand Challenges Initiative.

Wachter-Boettcher, author of Technically Wrong, discussed the importance of being aware of the harm done in subtle ways through technology, we use every day. She shed light on the issues caused when the lack of inclusivity permeating the tech industry has direct effects on the community of users it is focusing on.

This presentation was particularly eye-opening to me regarding my own relationship with technology in everyday life. Her specific examples of how different phrasing can have serious effects on the perpetuation of destructive “social norms.” Her example of the cupcake icon used by Google Maps to encourage walking rather than driving was a particularly bizarre example of this kind of perpetuation.

However, what really struck me about that example, besides the reasons listed as to why it was an inconsiderate and destructive new program, was her comment about how much time must have gone into making that kind of a program in the first place. This brings about the primary issue that faces the tech industry today: small choices regarding the details of new programs and applications that can lead to big consequences for their users.

While there is a significant amount of detail and planning that goes into the process of creating these things, the question becomes more about who is suggesting rather than what they are suggesting. Another aspect of this lecture that struck me was the reactions from major tech companies on how they deal with many of these problematic small choices discussed. CEOs of major companies such as Facebook seem to have very little remorse or concern for the areas in which they are neglecting their users. This mentality of quantity of content versus quality is plaguing the whole industry.

One example of how these concepts are brought about in the texts we have read so far has been through Roxane Gay’s discussion of social comparison in the media. Gay has been particularly outspoken about the shortcomings of our society in general towards people who do not fit the “norm” of this culture. When detailing her experiences Gay says, “People prefer the stories of the too-skinny girls who starve themselves and exercise too much…disappearing into plain sight” (Gay, 191).

Gay’s observation emphasizes the importance of an inclusive perspective when considering the implications of an application change, such as the Google Maps mini-cupcake incident. Another connection to texts from this semester comes from Ch. 3 of Jessica Valenti’s book, Full Frontal Feminism. In this chapter, titled “Pop Culture Gone Wild”, we hear from Valenti how she feels about the climate of pop culture in relation to women. She states: “We’re all trapped in the limiting version of sexuality that’s put out there – a sexuality that caters almost exclusively to men” (Valenti, 45).

The reality of the fight for equitable representation, not only for women but for all people, is that it will involve very intentional and well-organized demands to be made of institutions that have endless resources. Being able to combat this trap, as I believe Wachter-Boettcher spoke to in her lecture, is about finding what you want from the tech industry and asking for it directly.

Works Cited

Gay, Roxane. Hunger: A Memoir of (My) Body. New York, Harper Collins Publishers, 2017.

Valenti, Jessica. Full Frontal Feminism: A Young Woman’s Guide to Why Feminism Matters. Seal Press,  2007.


“A Novel Model of Cocaine Addiction”: An Interview with Crystal Carr, M.S., Ph.D. Candidate

by Kendra R. Parker
Crystal Carr, M.S, is a  Ph.D. Candidate in Biopsychology and a Rackham Merit Fellow at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. On Thursday, April 18,  Carr will deliver her talk, “Exploring a Novel Model of Cocaine Addiction” in Schaap Auditorium (Science Center), at 11 AM. In today’s interview, Carr discusses her upcoming visit, her research inspirations, and a riveting recommended read.


Welcome back to Hope College, Crystal. Recently,  you were at Hope for Brain Day. What are you most excited to share with students, faculty, staff, and community members who will attend your lecture on Thursday, April 18?

My research findings! I have presented some of the results at conferences, but much of the data I will discuss is new.

What’s your current field of study?

The University of Michigan Psychology Department offers a Ph.D. program in six areas of psychology. I am in the Biopsychology area, which is sometimes referred to as Behavioral Neuroscience. We broadly study brain-behavior relationships (the brain is the biology component and the behavior is the psychology component).

So, you’re in STEM, but as an undergraduate did you minor in Women’s and Gender Studies (WGS), and if so, how did your WGS minor/certificate shape you? If not, how did you come to learn about WGS as an academic discipline and how, if at all, does gender impact your research interests?

I did not minor in WGS, but for those interested, The University of Michigan offers several joint Ph.D. programs, with the option to combine Psychology with Education, Social Work, or Women’s Studies. In fact, a few of my colleagues are in the joint Women’s Studies and Psychology program and have shared their research with me. Though I am not jointly enrolled, I have conducted several sex-difference studies and I will share these results during my lecture.

If this does not give too much away before your lecture, what inspired you to research and write on cocaine addiction?

In short, addiction plagued my family. I consider relapse to be one of the most devastating aspects of addiction and I am interested in understanding the neurobiology in order to assist with treatment development. Unlike many other drugs of abuse, there is currently no approved medication to treat cocaine addiction.

Your talk will be on dangers of cocaine addiction, but I am wondering if you speak on any connections to race or gender and why your research is important for dispelling systemic myths about cocaine usage, addiction, and rehabilitation. 

There was a time when addicts were considered moral failures, with the logic being they could quit doing drugs if they really wanted. Addiction research has shown that addiction is a brain disease–a distinction that is especially important because it affects social and health policies.

What we know is this: repeated drug use results in neuroadaptations that contribute to compulsive drug use and a high propensity to relapse. The “telescope effect” refers to the observation that women typically transition to addiction faster, whereas women are seen for treatment sooner after first use and present with more severe addiction symptomology.  This knowledge and understanding are critical to dispelling stereotypes and myths.

What advice would you give to current Hope students, but Black women students especially, who are enrolled in STEM courses or who are interested in graduate school? Any words of wisdom? 

Great mentorship surely makes a difference!

In undergrad, I completed a plethora of biology courses, a neuroscience course, and even chemistry. While these courses were challenging, they provided a great foundation for my current degree. Although my Bachelor’s of Science degree is in Psychology, I spent a great deal of time in the Biology Department at Tuskegee Insitute, and I established relationships with the faculty, including Dr. Gerald D. Griffin.

So, as we wrap up a bit, tell me—what’s on your bookshelf these days? What’s the one book you recommend that we read—and why? 

For those who are interested in learning more about addiction, I would certainly suggest Dr. Carl Hart’s book, High Price: A Neuroscientist’s Journey of Self-Discovery That Challenges Everything You Know About Drugs and Society. Hart’s prologue details an experiment he conducted in 1999 that gave “experienced and committed” crack users the choice between a hit of crack cocaine and an alternative reinforcer (five dollars).  Hart paints a vivid scene that ends in an unexpected outcome: after having sampled the dose, the participant, a thirty-nine-year-old Black man who worked as a street bookseller, chose the cash.


We really appreciate Crystal for taking the time to share with us! Intrigued? Want to learn more? Join us tomorrow at 11AM in  Schaap 1000. Crystal’s event is free and open to the public.

Claiming Our Education: She Bites Back (Student Feature)

Claiming Our Education: She Bites Back

by Silvia Lepe, Joivenae Uribe, and Hannah Weller

“Student Feature” is our newest addition to the WGS blog. Student-scholars enrolled in WGS courses have consented to share their experiences inside and outside the classroom with the Hope community. Today, three students share their insights from Dr. Kendra R. Parker’s February 28 lecture, “She Bites Back: Black Women as Predators in Life and Lit.”


What is “She Bites Back”?

On Thursday, February 28, 2019, we attended “She Bites Back: Black Women as Predators in Life and Lit” where Dr. Kendra R. Parker discussed her research on Black female vampires, including her book, Black Female Vampires in African American Women’s Novels, 1977-2011: She Bites Back (2018). This event was part of the 2019 Hope College Department of English Colloquium Series.

Her research is focused on the identification of “predator” Black women have been given over centuries. She compared the political marginalization that both Black women and vampires have experienced in both reality and fiction and explains the terms “Black women” and “vampire” as interchangeable when considered political threats.

Learning Beyond the Classroom

“I learned way more than I thought I was going to. But I am going to highlight a few of the major points of the event. The first highlight was the presentation. Throughout the entire thing, I was shocked to learn what I did about racism and how vampires were used as a vessel in that. The second highlight was when Dr. Parker explained why she wrote the book and how it evolved from her dissertation to what is now a book. The research she put into it was fascinating to hear about. I also really enjoyed listening to why she chose the books she did in her book and her research. The final highlight for me was the question and answer session at the end. Sometimes when you go to presentations, no one in the audience wants to ask a question, but this was very different. The people in the audience were curious; they wanted to know more and even had comments about things that were shown in the presentation. Overall, it was one presentation that I enjoyed. I will definitely remember this information the next time I watch a vampire show/movie.”

“I have learned a lot from this presentation. I was never into reading books, let alone books about vampires. I never looked into the history of vampires and how many Black people were depicted as vampires and as blood-sucking predators throughout history. I had the chance to learn about many different works of literature about vampires, specifically those that include Black women as vampires or things of that sort or characteristics that can be seen as vampires.  I loved learning how Dr. Parker wanted to change the image of women, specifically the image of Black women, and how in Black women’s literature they are not the “typical” bad vampires that people usually envision. It was very interesting learning about the connections that many see between Black people and vampires. I would have never have seen the connection or would have never known that they were depicted that way until coming to this presentation.”

“One thing I learned from Dr. Parker’s lecture was the depiction of Black folks as vampires. Prior to this lecture, I learned about Black people depicted as animals, but vampires were an entirely new category. In simple terms, Black people were considered monsters. The photo titled “The Vampire that Hovers over North Carolina” depicts a Black person (looks more manly) as a vampire terrorizing a village. Since vampires are considered non-human, the “undead,” depicting a Black person meant society considered them as creatures and monsters that needed to be hunted and ‘eliminated.’”

From the Text to the Stage–and Back

This presentation made us think a lot about Octavia E. Butler’s Mind of My Mind. We know this was one of the books used in the research and presentation and one we read in WGS 200 (Introduction to Women’s and Gender Studies), but we’re thinking more about the systems of oppression that we see throughout the book.

Black people face so much oppression as it is and seeing the ways that they are referred to as bloodsuckers or feeding off things makes it worse. In Mind of My Mind, there is a lot of privilege given to the characters who have telepathic power, and those without are seen as less than–they are even called “Mutes.”


Are you a WGS major or minor? Or are you enrolled in a WGS course? Would you like to contribute to “Student Feature”? Email wgs AT hope DOT edu.

Claiming Our Education: Reflections on “Speaking Truth to Power” with Austin Channing Brown

Claiming Our Education: Reflections on “Speaking Truth to Power” with Austin Channing Brown

by Gracyn Carter, Emma Holman, and Grace Kennedy

“Student Feature” is our newest addition to the WGS blog. Student-scholars enrolled in WGS courses have consented to share their experiences inside and outside the classroom with the Hope community. Today, three students share their insights from Austin Channing Brown’s February 27 lecture, “Speaking Truth to Power.”

What was “Speaking Truth to Power”?

On Wednesday, February 27, 2019, we went to the Black History Month lecture titled “Speaking Truth to Power” by Austin Channing Brown. The event was held in Jack Miller Music Hall and it was packed full of people. Before Brown spoke, there was a song sang by a fellow student from the Black Student Union accompanied by a piano player. After Image result for “Speaking Truth to Power” with Austin Channing Brownthat, there was a speech by a student from the Student Activities Committee. Then, Austin Channing Brown started her lecture which included stories and life-experiences from her book I’m Still Here: Black Dignity in a World Made for Whiteness (2018). She talked about her life experience as a black woman in America and divided the rest of the lecture into three points- a world made for whiteness, black dignity, and the answer to the question “what is a white person supposed to do now?” The lecture was very lively and engaging because she did not want the lecture to become too formal and she wanted people to engage with her. Austin Channing Brown had a thought-provoking and action-provoking lecture on what it means to be Black in a world made for whiteness.

Brown’s keynote shed light on the instances of racial discrimination and bias that still take place not only on Hope’s campus but in our whole country. Through her empowering words and personal story, she brought about meaningful conversations on campus and enlightened the audience about how to bring about real change for our community.

Learning Beyond the Classroom

“The whole event was amazing. I can’t begin to fully grasp every point that Brown discussed in her speech, because it was so mind-boggling to be confronted with those issues and concepts . . . Like most white people who don’t know how it is to be oppressed based on the color of our skin, I cannot begin to understand how to reverse all of the pain that Black people and other people of color have experienced because of the white supremacy that is built into our society. I do agree with Brown when she said that ‘every single Black person is created with inherent dignity’ and that we need to stand in solidarity with one another to fight against oppression. Lastly, I fully support Brown in her belief that in order to make a change we need to use the advantage of our own privilege and show up for racial justice.” 

“Having grown up in a predominantly white environment my whole life, I had never really given much consideration to the ways that racial discrimination is evident in my life, I also ways knew that it was wrong, and I knew that it happened, but I considered myself and the people around me to be acceptations to the brainwashing that takes place in white communities. Hearing Brown speak about both the small and big ways that race has played a part in her daily life really struck me for numerous reasons. First, it made me think about how being an ally to people of color is not about how me. It is about standing up for those that are not me, those that do not always have the same socially constructed privileges I have and getting out of the way when there are things that I do not need to speak to. I am not meant to be a savior of people of color, but instead someone that can be trusted to listen and hear what people of color have to say and working with them to ensure they are being heard. Secondly, it empowered me to reconsider how I treat people based on factors that they cannot necessarily control. The overarching theme of this speech for me was not only about racial matters, but the way we treat each other in general.”

“One of the main ideas I learned from this event is the world is made for whiteness. I am privileged because I am white, and I don’t have to think about certain things that people of color do. The world welcomes us because we are white and makes room for us. Another idea I learned from this event is black dignity. Brown states there are two lies: white people are superior and colored people are inferior. The first lie is talked about a lot but the second one is never brought up. We need to discuss the second lie more. Also, Brown discussed the lie that hip hop music is seen as inherently bad because of its involvement with blackness. People constantly disregard Hip Hop without even listening to it. Further, I learned Brown’s answer to the question ‘what is a white person supposed to do now?’ Brown any answer she could give is too short and too easy. She said we should use the power that we have to change the college and curriculum to be more inclusive.”  

Connecting the Dots: From the Text to the Stage—and Back

When considering how this topic fits with our readings I was reminded of Andrew David Thaler’s article; Thaler speaks to the nature of being an ally:  “Being an ally is not something you are, it’s something you do. ‘Ally’ is not an identity, it is a set of behaviors that help acknowledge and promote underprivileged members of your community.” This definition strikes a chord for me as I consider how to better understand being a meaningful member of a community that is striving for diversity and inclusion in many ways. Remembering that being an ally is so much more about how you act than how you present yourself to want to act is such an important distinction.

Another reading that connects to Brown’s speech is Peggy McIntosh’s “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack.” McIntosh lists forty-six things that are privileges for her as a white woman. After listing these she states, “For me, white privilege has turned out to be an elusive and fugitive subject… the appearance of being a good citizen rather than a trouble maker comes in large part from having all sorts of doors open automatically because of my color. Her acknowledgment of the privilege that she has is something that I find particularly admirable considering the topics that Brown addressed. Simple things that I all too often do not recognize as advantages can continue to add up to make a world that is not conducive to those that are different from the depiction of normality that we are fed, both as white people and people of color.

Works Cited

McIntosh, Peggy. “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack.” Feminist Frontiers, 9th ed. Edited by Verta Taylor, Nancy Whittier, and Leila J. Rupp. McGraw-Hill, 2012. pp. 11-17.

Thaler, Andrew David. “On Being an Ally and Being Called Out for Your Privilege.” Weblog. Southern Fried Science, 19 November 2013.


Are you a WGS major or minor? Or are you enrolled in a WGS course? Would you like to contribute to “Student Feature”? Email wgs AT hope DOT edu.

Claiming My Education: Black Women in STEM–Knowledge and Inspiration

Claiming My Education: Black Women in STEM–Knowledge and Inspiration”

by Heaven Silas

“Student Feature” is our blog’s newest addition to the WGS blog. Student-scholars enrolled in WGS courses have consented to share their experiences inside and outside the classroom with the Hope community. Today,  Heaven Silas (Communication ’20) reviews Dr. Valerie Taylor’s visit from March 6. 

On Wednesday, March 6, 2019, at 7:00PM, in Winants Auditorium, I attended Dr. Valerie Taylor’s “High Performance Computing: A Case for Performance Analysis” lecture. In this event, Dr. Taylor, a STEM expert, gave a lecture to students and faculty members on her research on Computing Analysis and Parallels with Algorithms.

Dr. Taylor discussed the main topics of how power, time, communication, and frequency interact with each other in this specific form of math and science. She summarized her lecture with “High performance computing is important for some applications. Performance is important for efficient deception, and different applications require different strategies for efficiency.” 

If I’m being honest, the entire lecture went completely over my head. I am not in any way skilled and or knowledgeable about STEM  nor am I familiar with this form of research. I was not able to engage in the learning process of her actual lecture.

However, I was moved in a different way.

Seeing this Black woman as an expert in the STEM disciplines inspired me. Her knowledge and skill level of the subject was amazing, and I was even more excited by how many people had come out to hear her lecture. She was teaching amongst predominantly white people, and specifically white men. These men not only attended, but they were also open to learning from her and receiving all of what she had to share.

This was not a typical event that I have attended–where someone speaks and shares their life experiences; this woman was actually teaching some of her research in detail, and people were taking notes, solving problems, and following along with her lesson. I did also learn (proudly) that 9 megawatts are equivalent to the electricity necessary for 6,000 homes, and the cost of this would be about 9 million dollars. Not sure why, but this fact stood out to me (probably because it was the only thing that I understood).

Attending this event allowed me to see yet another way of Black women exceeding people’s expectations of their intelligence. Not that I had any doubt in my mind that Black women are not intelligent; I have never once thought that (I am, after all, a Black woman). However, our society perceives Black women as unintelligent. In fact, I have learned it is a common stereotype, and a lot of our readings on feminism and women’s rights in my WGS 200 class have spoken about.

For example, in Hunger: A Memoir of (My) Body, Roxane Gay recounts experiences of racism amongst white men regarding her education. Specifically, she recalls a time when a white male student scoffed at her for getting into her ivy league school: “He looked at me with plain disgust. ‘Affirmative Action’ he sneered, unable to swallow the bitter truth that, I a black girl, had achieved something he could not” (85).

Additionally, in Feminisms Matter, Victoria Bromley discusses how women are often seen as less intelligent than men. Bromley explains that according to dominant assumptions, American women are “supposed” to be “Nurturing, irrational, subordinate, passive, domestic, virginal, and dependent” (3).

Did you see intelligent on that list? Neither did I.

Works Cited

Bromley, Victoria L. Feminisms Matter: Debates, Theories, Activism. University of Toronto Press, 2012.

Gay, Roxane. Hunger: A Memoir of (My) Body. Harper Collins, 2017.


Are you a WGS major or minor? Or are you enrolled in a WGS course? Would you like to contribute to “Student Feature”? Email wgs AT hope DOT edu.

“You were designed to intertwine with people who have stories different from your own”: An Interview with Dr. Davia J. Crutchfield

by Kendra R. Parker

Dr. Davia J. Crutchfield will be visiting Hope’s campus this week. Check out our interview with Dr. Crutchfield. She discusses her Women’s Studies certificate, the value of WGS courses, her research inspirations, and more. 

What are you most excited to share with students, faculty, staff, and community members who will attend your lecture on Thursday, November 8?

Honestly, I am most excited for the conversation following the lecture. I am eager to engage with Hope’s academic and surrounding community about secular rap and spirituality. I think the dialogue will be compelling and motivational.

Did you major/minor in Women’s and Gender Studies (WGS), and if so, how did your WGS major/minor/certificate shape you? If not, how did you come to WGS as an academic discipline?

I completed the Women’s Studies certificate as part of my Master’s program at Howard University because I wanted to critically examine social and spiritual issues faced by Black women.  Taking part in a Women’s Studies Program at a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) provided me a space to explore Black women’s varied experiences, and I became aware of my own biases. I was more conscious of the varied ways oppression shows itself in various areas, especially in the areas of women’s contributions to various disciplines, spaces, art forms, and more.

What difficulties, if any, did you have reconciling your faith with your Women’s Studies certificate?

This is such an interesting question because I do not think I was conscious of how my learning impacted me until I recognized that the questions I was asking myself and others changed. For example, a couple of years ago I asked a few of my Christian friends: “As a Black Christian woman, how do you see yourself? Which descriptor comes first to you: Black, Christian, or woman?” The answers differed, but in some form, we all agreed that the three do not operate individually; they were collective. Our varied experiences as women, as Black women, and as Black Christian women have all contributed to our narratives, understandings, and interactions of our faith and the world.

I once heard a pastor state that as we enter the church our culture fades and falls away. The pastor commented that we adopt a Christian identity and our individual culture becomes obsolete. I was troubled by that—not because I don’t believe in a Christian identity—but because I think to typecast Christianity into a narrative that suits a particular group of people truly diminishes the lived experiences of those who have to “compromise more” than others to fit that identity. It creates a hazardous environment, and it offers another avenue to marginalize members of the congregation, especially when we live in a world that constantly tells a group of people “your voice is unimportant; your contributions are unimportant.”

If this does not give too much away before your lecture, what inspired you to research on Kendrick Lamar?

I began with puzzle pieces and the masterpiece followed. I knew I wanted to study the relationship between Christianity and secular rap music as I have sometimes met disdain from others because I enjoy secular rap music. Also, my younger brother, Malcolm Xavier, was a huge supporter of my interest in the complexities of Black masculinity, Christianity, and secular rap music. I knew I wanted to study these complexities in a way that did not look to demonize secular rap. As I unpacked my research on Black Liberation Theology, Black Radicalism, and secular rap music, I realized I wanted to examine how Black Christian men used secular rap music as part of their socialization and personal expression. Later, those ambitions turned into a textual analysis on secular lyrics. Enter Kendrick Lamar. His album, good kid, m. A. A. d city(2012), had just dropped, and his lyrics made headlines left and right. He also had an incredible body of music to study. The beauty began to unfold throughout my entire writing process. Looking back, it was incredible.

 Your talk will be on the intersections of faith and Black masculinity in the context of Kendrick Lamar’s music, and you have mentioned you have a graduate certificate in Women’s Studies. What advice would you give to current students who are not considering WGS as a major or minor (or even a course in their undergraduate studies) about the value of a course in WGS?

I would ask “why deny yourself such a good thing?” Just start with one course and allow yourself to grow in it; it will truly strengthen your perspective–not only on other people’s experiences but also your own. My own Women’s Studies courses helped me formulate a language to tell my own story that was so empowering. Regardless of your gender or gender identification, I think a WGS course offers what many courses do not always allow—another voice, seat, perspective, lens. And that is essential because we are not designed to live life in a vacuum. You were designed to intertwine with people who have stories different from your own. It is dangerous to live in a monolithic world because you deny yourself the good fortune of growing in an awareness that will only strengthen you as you continue to live in this world.

If you could teach any WGS course, what would you title it? Who is one person you would include on the syllabus? Why?

I would teach a course on Black women artists who use their platforms for social activism. I would include Jenifer Lewis, actress and author of The Mother of Black Hollywood: A Memoir (2017), on the syllabus, and I would petition for her to lead a lecture. Lewis’ boldness is beautiful; she speaks on mental illness (a taboo topic for many within Black communities), on social engagement, social responsibility, personal growth, accountability, and more.

What is a WGS book you read—recently or not so recently—that you would call your favorite? Why?

I am currently reading Dr. Roxane Gay’s Bad Feminist, and it is incredible. I love her voice, her perspective, and her account of her experiences.

Do you want to learn more? On Thursday, November 8, at 3:30 PM, Dr. Crutchfield will be speaking in Fried-Hemenway Auditorium at 3:30 PM on “Faith, Intersectionality, and Black Masculinity: Kendrick Lamar’s Urban Theology.” On Friday, November 9, she will be speaking on “Unfinished Business” in Dimnet Chapel at 10:30 AM and guest teaching Dr. Kendra R. Parker’s “The Secular and the Sacred: Black Biblical Appropriations” cultural heritage course at 12 PM. On Sunday, November 11, she will meet with the Black Student Union in the Bultman Student Center at 8 PM. All events are free and open to the public.

Dr. Crutchfield’s visit is co-sponsored by the Women’s and Gender Studies Program, the Emmaus Scholars Program, the Cultural Affairs Committee, and the Global Learning Director.